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138 Cards in this Set

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kelly. effort to expand one's construct system so it is capable of assimilating a greater range of experiences.
kelly. feeling one has when one realizes that an experience lies outside one's construct system
choice corollary
kelly. states that people will choose a construct that will either further define or extend their construct system
circumspection phase
kelly. that phase of the CPC cycle in which a person ponders several constructs that might be useful in construing a novel situation
cognitive theory
kelly. any theory that focuses on the study of mental events.
cognitively complex person
kelly. person with many well-differentiated constructs in his or her construct system
cognitively simple person
kelly. person with only a few poorly differentiated constructs in his or her construct system
commonality corollary
kelly. states that people can be considered similar not because of similar physical experiences but because they construe their experiences in a similar fashion
construct system
kelly. collection of constructs used by a person at any given time to construe the events in his or her life
construction corollary
kelly. states that constructs are formed on the basis of the recurring themes in one's experience
constructive alternativism
kelly. term that reflects Kelly's belief that there are numberous ways of construing one's experience and therefore one is free to choose from a number of construct systems.
kelly. one's active effor to interpret, explain, and give meaning to experiences.
control phase
kelly. that phase of the CPC cycle in which people choose a pole of the construct chosen in the preemptive phase of the cycle and act in accordance with that pole.
core role structure
kelly. roles we play while interacting with the important people and groups in our lives
core structures
kelly. those constructs on which we rely most heavily when construing experience - that is, those that have been most consistently validated
CPC cycle
kelly. series of activities engaged in by a person confronted with a novel situation
creativity cycle
kelly. three-phase cycle in which innovative ideas are sought. Phase 1 involves loosening one's construct system to allow realignments of elements and constructs. Phase 2 involves retightening one's construct system after an innovative idea has been found. Phase 3 involves testing the idea and retaining it if it is found useful and discarding it if not.
credulous attitue
kelly. assumption that the information provided by cliencts about themselves can be trusted as accurate and valid
definition of a construct system
kelly. choice of a construct in construing a situation that has already been successful in construing similar situations. Such a choice has the effect of further validating one's construct system
dichotomy corollary
kelly. States that each construct has two poles, one of which describes what characteristics the events to which the construct is relevant have in common, the other of which describes events without those characteristics. For example, if one pole of a construct describes beautiful things, the other pole may describe things without beauty, or ugly things
existential theory
kelly. any theory that focuses on the nature of, or the problems related to, human existence
experience corollary
kelly. states that mere passive experience is unimportant. It is the active construing of experience that ultimately results in a more effective construct system
extension of the construct system
kelly. Choice of a construct, in construing a situation, that has never been tried. Such a choice has the potential effect of extending one's construct system so that it it capable of assimilating a greater range of experience
kelly. feeling one has when a relatively unimportant construct is about to be invalidated, thus requiring a minor change in one's construct system.
fixed-role therapy
kelly. clinical technique that asks clients to act as if they were other people. Thus clients become actors, and the therapist becomes a supporting actor. The idea is to have the clients try different ways of construing their experiences in a non-threatening situation as the therapist provides validating information about their new construct systems
focus of convenience
kelly. events within the range of convenience of a construct to which that construct is maximally significant.
fragmentation corollary
kelly. States that as a construct system is being tested, revised, or extended, certain inconsistences in behavior may result
kelly. Feeling one has when one acts contrary to a role one has assumed while interacting with a significant person or group in one's life
kelly. Attempt to force the validation of a prediction that has already proved to be erroneous
humanistic theory
kelly. any theory that assumes that humans are basically good and rational and their behavior is purposive.
individuality corollary
kelly. States that each person is unique in his or her manner of construing experience
Jackass theory of motivation
kelly. Kelly's description of his own theory because it claimed that motivation is inherent to human nature. Therefore, there is no need to postulate events that push or pull humans into action.
kelly. any change in one's construct system.
modulation corollary
kelly. States that a construct system is more likely to change if the constructs contained in it are permeable.
kelly. a synonym for life
Organization corollary
kelly. States that constructs are arranged in a hierarchy from most general to most specific
permeable construct
kelly. construct that easily assimilates new experiences
personal construct
kelly. idea or thought that a person uses when construing personal experience. Sometimes simply called a construct
kelly. refers to a person's construct system
kelly. one who studies intact, consciouos experience
preemption phase
kelly. that phase of the CPC cycle in which people decide which construct to use to construe a novel situation
preverbal construct
kelly. Construct formulated early in one's life, before language was adequately developed. Although such a construct cannot be labeled verbally it can still be used to construe one's experiences
propositional construct
kelly. Construct that is cognitively tested as one that might be useful in construing a situation
kelly. Because Kelly equated people suffering emotional problems with bad scientists, therapy was regarded as a setting in which the client coudl learn to be a better scientist - that is, learn to develop a more effective construct system
Pull therapies of motivation
kelly. Those theories that emphasize terms such as purpose, value, or need. Kelly also called these carrot theories
push theories of motivation
kelly. Those theories that emphasize terms such as drive, motive, and stimulus. Kelly also called these pitchforck theories
range corollary
kelly. states that a construct is relevant to only a finite range of events
range of convenience
kelly. Finite range of events to which a particular construct is relevant
kelly. For kelly, a role is acting in accordance with another person's expectations of how one will act
role construct
kelly. Awareness of another person's expectations. In a sense, a role construct involves seeing the world through someone else's eyes
role construct repertory test (rep test)
Kelly. Test developed by Kelly to identify the constructs clients use to construe the relevant people in their lives
Kelly. Sketch that Kelly sometimes had his clients write about themselves (in the third person) in order to learn what constructs they used to construe themselves and other people
slot movements
kelly. The abrupt shifting from the use of one pole of a construct to its opposite that is often precipitated by stress
sociality corollary
Kelly. States that to engage in constructive social interaction with another person, one must first understand how that person construes his or her experiences. only then can one play a role in that person's life
Kelly. Situation in which one pole of a construct is used, but the other pole tends not to be. The unused pole is said to be submerged or unconscious
subordinate constructs
kelly. Constructs that are subsumed under a more general construct
superordinate construct
kelly. general construct that subsumes other constructs
kelly. Situation in which an experience has low cognitive awareness because it is incompatible with one's current construct system. If one's construct system is changed so it can assimilate the experience, it (the experience) will enter full awareness; that is, it will no longer be suspended
kelly. Awareness that one or more important constructs will be invalidated, thus requiring a major change in one's construct system
kelly. Constructs with low cognitive awareness
kelly. Results when a construct or a construct system successfully anticipates an experience
actualizing tendency
rogers. Innate tendency in all humans to maintain and enhance thenselves.
rogers. Results when a person perceives or subceives an experience as being incompatible with his or her self-structure and its introjected conditions of worth
rogers. characterizes the events in one's experience that have been symbolized and therefore have entered consciousness
client-centered therapy
rogers. Description of Rogers's second approach to therapy in shich the therapist makes an active effort to understand the client's subjective reality
conditions of worth
rogers. conditions under shich an incongruent person will experience positive regard
Rogers. effort to change a threatening experience through distortion or denial
rogers. refusal to allow threatening experiences to enter awareness
rogers. modification of a threatening experience so it is no longer threatening
rogers. all the events of which a person could be aware at any given moment
experiential stage
rogers. third stage in the evolution of Rogers's approach to therapy in which the feelings of the therapist become as important as the feelings of the client
facilitator of education
rogers. term that rogers thought was better than teacher because it suggests someone who is helpful and uncritical and who will provide the freedom that is necessary for learning to take place
fully functioning person
rogers. Person whose locus of evaluation is his or her own organismic valuing process rather than internalized conditions of worth
ideal self
rogers. client's description of how he or she would like to be
rogers. statements chosen by a client as best describing the person he or she would most like to be. Part of the q-sort technique
rogers. Exists when a person is no longer using the organismic valuing process as a means of evaluating experiences. The person, under these conditions, is no longer acting honestly toward his or her self-experiences.
internal frame of reference
rogers. Subjective reality, or phenomenological field, according to which a person lives his or her life
introjected values
rogers. conditions of worth that are internalized and becomethe basis for one's self-regard
need for positive regard
rogers. need a person develops to feel positively abouot him- or herself
nondirective therapy
rogers. Description of Rogers's first approace to therapy in which the emphasis was on the client's ability to solve his or her problems
openness to experience
rogers. one of the chief characteristics of a fully functioning person
organismic valuing process
rogers. Frame of reference that allows an individual to know if his or her experiences are in accordance with his or her actualizing tendency. Those experiences that maintain or enhance the person are in accordance with this process; other experiences are not.
Person-centered stage
rogers. Final stage in Rogers's thinking in which the emphasis was on understanding the total person, not on understanding the person merely as a client
phenomenological field
rogers. that protion of experience of which an individual is aware. It is this subjective reality, rather than physical reality, that directs a person's behavior
phenomenological reality.
rogers. Person's private, subjective perception or interpretation of objective reality
Rogers. To Rogers, an experience designed to help an incongruent person become congruent
Q-sort technique
rogers. Method Rogers used to determine how a client's self-image changed as a function of therapy
Real self
Rogers. Client's description of how he or she currently views him or herself
Rogers-Skinner debate
Debate held in 1955 between Rogers and Skinner over how best to use the principles discovered by the behavioral sciences
Satellite relationships
rogers. close relationship with individuals other than one's spouse
Rogers. that portion of the phenomenological field that becomes differentiated because of experiences involving terms such as I, me,and mine
rogers. Statements chosen by a client as best describing the person as he or she actually is at the moment. Part of Q-sort technique
rogers. Detection of an experience before it enters full awareness
process by which an event enters an individual's awareness
Rogers. Therm that Rogers believed was unfortunate because it connotes an authoritarian figure who dispenses information to passive students
rogers. anything that is thought to be incompatible with one's self structure
unconditional positive regard
rogers. Experience of positive regard without conditions of worth. In other words, positive regard is not contingent on certain acts or thoughts
May. Unselfish giving of one's self in a loving relationship. One loves but expects nothing in return
May. Separation from nature, other people, or oneself that results in feelings of loneliness, emptiness, or despair
May. To be human is to experience anxiety. Anxiety is the experience we have when our existence ias an individual is threatened. To ponder one's inevitable death causes anxiety, as does the threat to one's values. To grow, one's values must be threatened. Therefore, anxiety is an unavoidable component of a normal, healthy life.
May. If people live their lives in accordance with values that are freely chosen, they are living authentic lives. If, however, people conform to values established by others, they have not exercised their personal freedom and are therefore living inauthentic lives. Inauthenticity is causally related to neurotic anxiety and guilt and the feelings of loneliness, ineffectiveness, self-alienation, and despair.
May. contention that through their active involvement with their life's circumstances, authentic people are constantly changing.
May. one must exist in the world and therefore act on it. Values are meaningless unless they are manifested in behavior. The formulation of values, therefore, also commits people to a course of action. Behavioral commitment to self-formulated, future-oriented, human values characterizes the authentic life.
May. An authentic life involves creating for oneself a structure of meaning that will guide one's thoughts and actions. Such a life requires courage because it means that often one's beliefs and actions may be contrary to those that are widely accepted.
May. Potential for evil or harm that is part of human nature. The daimonic occurs when any natural function that in moderation is positive, dominates the individual- for example, when assertiveness becomes aggression or histility or when eros causes one to dominate one's lover and thereby destroy his or her individuality
May. Sutdy of the individual as being in the world. The emphasis is on an individual's existence at a certain time under certain circumstances. The conditions a person finds him-or herself in can never be separated from the person him or herself. The two must be viewed as whole. The individual as an object and as a subject can never be separated.
May. Because humans are mortal, and because death is the ultimate state of nonbeing, awareness of one's inevitable death causes anxiety. This source of anxiety is part of human existence and cannot be avoided. The awareness of dath, however, can add vitality to life by motivating a person to get as much out of life as possible in the limited time available
may. According to May, the givens in one's life that are creatively interpreted, and are thus provided meaning. For example, it is a given that all humans will die, but whether this fact is a source of vitality or despair is a persona choice
may. The intrapersonal world. An individual's self-awareness
May. The meeting of two selves. Seeing things as the other sees them and vice versa. An honest sharing of one's self with another person. For may, an encounter is a necessary component of successful psychotherapy. The client must be understood as a total human being, not as a collection of test scores or repressed experiences or as an object that fits into some diagnostic category
may. Desire to form a union with or to feel at one with one's partner in love. Through the sharing of two selves, both experience new things and both expand their consciousness. With sex, the goal is satisfaction and termination; with eros, the goal is to prolong the loving experience as long as possible
may. philosophy that studies the essence of human nature. The emphasis is on freedom, individuality, and phenomenological experience
may. Not the absence of negative conditions, but the potential to set future-oriented goals and then to act in accordance with them. According to the existential philosopher Sartre, "We are our choices," or "We are what we choose to be." Freedom exists only as potential and must be attained over time by increasing one's self-awareness. Because freedom necessariloy involves anxiety and responsibility, many people deny, minimize, or escape from their personal freedom
may. Feeling we have when we realize we are not living up to our full potential
Human Dilemma
may. Capacity of humans to see themselves as objects to which things happen, and as subjects who act on their experiences and thereby give them meaning
may. the fact that mental events are directed toward objects outside of themselves. For example, perception always involves the perception of something. It is through intentionality that a relationship between objective and subjective reality is formed.
may. True or authentic love involves a harmonious blending of sex, eros, philia, and agapé.
may. World of human interaction
Neurotic anxiety
May. Anxiety that results from not being able to deal adequately with normal anxiety. For example, if a person conforms or develops inflexible values to avoid normal anxiety, the normal anxiety is converted into neurotic anxiety, which causes a person to live life within narrow limits and inhibit various experiences that are necessary for healthy growth. The person experiencing neurotic anxiety is shut off from many of his or her potentialities.
neurotic guilt
may. If normal guilt is not recognized and dealt with constructively, it can overwhelm a person, causing him or her to block out the very experiences conducive to personal growth
New science of humans
may. Rather than a science of humans based on determinism and elementism and one that has as its goal the prediction and control of behavior, May proposed a science of humans based on existential philosophy. Such a science woudl take into consideration the human use of symbols, the human sense of time, the importance of values, the uniqueness of each human, and the importance of freedom
Normal anxiety
may. Anxiety that results from the revisions of one's value system and from the awareness of one's inevitable death. To gow as a person requires taking risks, which causes normal anxiety.
Normal guilt
may. Feeling experienced when one recognizes the difference between what one is and what one could be. Because we can always be more than we are, normal guilt is unavoidable
object-subject dichotomy
may. The fact that as humans we are both the objects of experience and the interpreters, transformers, and originators of experience
Oedipus conflict
may. Rather than interpreting the Oedipus conflict as an attracion toward one parent and hostility toward the other, as Freud did, May interpreted the conflict as a struggle between dependence and independence
may. Study of being. Within existentialism, ontological anaylsis is directed at understanding the essence of humans in general and of individuals in particular
may. Study of conscious experience as it exists for the person without any attempt to reduce, divide or compartmentalize it in any way.
may. Experience of friendship or companionship with one's loved one even when sex and eros are not involved. Simply like to be wih your loved one
may. Effective psychotherapy can only result from an encounter between two humans. The therapist must attempt to understand things as teh client does and try to understand how the client is using a "problem" to maintain his or her identity as a person. The goal of therapy is to free the client from neurotic anxiety and guilt, so that the person will be freer to actualize his or her potential
may. because we are free to choose our own existence, we are also entirely responsible for that existence. We can praise or blame no one but ourselves for whatever we become as people
may. To be aware of one's existence as a being in the world who both has experiences and transforms them. To be conscious of the fact that one is both the object and subject of experience
may. Biological aspect of love. To satisfy the sexual aspect of love requires only sexual activity with a partner. In such cases, the partner becomes the object by which the need for sex is satisfied
May. Also called facticity, destiny, and ground of existence. Those facts that characterize a person's life over which he or she has no control. Such facts include the biological, historical, and cultural events that characterize his or her life.
May. Physical, objective world. The world that is studied by the physcial and biological sciences
may. The unconscious is not a "cellar" in which repressed experiences reside, as it was for Freud. Rather, it consists of the experiences denied awareness because of inflexible values or because of the restrictive influence of neurotic anxiety and guilt. When values become flexible and neurotic anxiety and guilt are overcome, the person is again open to experience, and nothing needs to be denied awareness
may. Those categories of experience that are deemed most important to the person. Typically, values early in life involve the love, security, and nourishment provided by one's mother; later values include status and success. Mature values are future oriented, are arrived at independently, and are concerned with other humans
may. Commitment to action
may. Cognitive exploration of possible courses of action before actually committing oneself to one particular course.