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32 Cards in this Set

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Medications that cause anemia
methyldopa - RBC ab/hemolysis
choloroquine, sulfa drugs - G6PD
phenytoin- megaloblastic anemia
choloramphenicol - aplastic anemia
Bite Cells
Hemolytic Anemia
BAsophilic Stippling
Lead poisioning
Heinz Bodies
G6PD deficinecy
Howell-Jolly Bodies
Asplenia/spenic dysfunction
iron inclusions in RBC's of bone marrow
sideroblastic anemia
tear drop shaped RBC's
myelofibrosis
acanthocytes/spur cells
abetalipoproteinimia
echinocytes/burr cells
uremia
polychromasia
reticulocytosis
schistocytes, helmet cells, fragmented RBC's
intravascular hemolysis
Microcytic Anemia
Thalassemia/hemoglobinopathy
iron deficiency
sideroblastic anemia
Anemai of chronic dz
lead poisoining
Normocytic Anemia
acute blood loss, hemolytic, medications
cancer, ACD, aplastic anemia, renal failure
Macrocytic Anemia
folate def
b12 def
meds - methotrexate, phenytoin
cirrhosis/liver dz
Fe defiency
low Fe
low ferritin
elevated TIBC
low TIBC saturation
Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
esophageal web producing ysphagia, iron deficiency anemia, and glossitis
Signs of B- thalassemia
elevated hemoglobin A2 and F
target cells,nucleated RBC's, xrzys showing crew cut apperance, splenomegaly
Dx of thalassemia
hemoglobin electrophoresis
alpha thalessemai symptomatic at birth, beta sympotomatic at 6 mos
Fe levels are normal
Tx for thalassemia
as needed transfusions and iron chelation therapy to prevent hemochromatosis
Sideroblasttic anemia
disturbed mito metabolism--> adequate Fe but cannot incoprate into Hb; increased or nl Fe, ferritin and TIBC saturation; "ringed sideroblasts" in the bone marrow
May respond to pyridoxine
Anemia of Chronic Dz
low Fe, TIBC, elevated ferritin
seen in dz that cause chronic inflamm RA, lupus, cancer, TB
Medications that cause lupus
procainamide
hydralizine
isoniazid
Tx of sickle crisis
oxygen
IV fluids
analgesics
Dx of spherocytosis
positive osmotic fragility test
increased mean corpuscualr hemoglobin
(small rbc's w/ absent central pallor)
G6PD deficiency
sudden hemolysis and anemai following fava bean or drug exposure (anti-malarials, salicylates, sulfa drugs) dx with RBC enzyme assay
Fresh Frozen Plasma
contains all clotting factorsused when cannot wait for vit K to take effect or vit K will not work (liver failure)
cyroprecipitate
contains fibrinogen and factor 8
used in von Willebrand Dz and DC
DIC
elevated PT, PTT, BT, FDP, positive D-dimer
decreases in fibrin and clotting factors
Extrinsic pathway
warfarin/K
depends on factors 2, 7, 9,10
Intrinsic Pathway
heparin/protamine
hemophilia A - decreased Factor 8
Hemophilia B - decreased Factor 9
ITP
watch for preceding URI, elevated BT, low platelet count
TTP
homolysis, CNS symptoms. elevated BT, low paltelet counts and RBC counts