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96 Cards in this Set

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cardiorespiratory endurance
The ability of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the cells to meet the demands of prolonged physical activity.
Hypokinetic diseases
"Hypo" denotes "lack of"; therefore, lack of physical activity.
Alveoli
Air sacs in the lungs where oxygen is taken up and carbon dioxide (produced by the body) is released from the blood.
Hemoglobin
Iron-containing compound, found in red blood cells, that transports oxygen.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
A high-energy chemical compound that the body uses for immediate energy.
Oxygen uptake (VO2)
The amount of oxygen used by the human body.
Aerobic
Exercise that requires oxygen to produce the necessary energy (ATP) to carry out the activity.
Anaerobic
Exercise that does not require oxygen to produce the necessary energy (ATP) to carry out the activity.
Maximal oxygen uptake(VO2 Max)
Maximum amount of oxygen the body is able to utilize per minute of physical activity, commonly expressed in ml/kg/min. The best indicator of cardiorespiratory or aerobic fitness.
cardiac output
Amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute.
stroke volume
amount of blood pumped by the heart in one beat
workload
amount or intensity of demands placed on the body during physical activity
mitochondria
structures within the cells where energy transformations take place
capillaries
smallest blood vessels carrying oxygentated blood to body tissues
recovery time
amount of time the body takes to return to resting levels after exercise
bradycardia
slower heart rate than normal
sphygmomanometer
device to measure blood pressure; consists of inflatable bladder contained within a cuff and a manometer(either mercury gravity or aneroid) from which the pressure is read
systolic blood pressure
pressure exerted by blood against walls of arteries during forceful contraction (systole) of the heart
diastolic blood pressure
pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries during the relaxation phase (diastole) of the heart
vigorous exercise
cardiorespiratory exercise that requires an intensity level above 60 percent of maximal capacity
intensity
in cardiorespiratory exercise, how hard a person has to exercise to improve or maintain fitness
heart rate reserve (HRR)
the difference between the maximal heart rate and the resting heart reate
maximal heart rate (MHR)
highest heart rate for a person, related primarily to age
resting heart rate (RHR)
heart rate after a person has been sitting quietly for 15-20 minutes
rate of perceived exertion (RPE)
a perception scale to monitor or interpret the intensity of aerobic exercise
mode
form of exercise
cross-training
a combination of aerobic activities that contribute to overall fitness
aerobic dance
a series of exercise routines performed to music
high-impact aerobics
exercises incorporating movements in which both feet are off the ground at the same time momentarily
low-impact aerobics
exercises in which at least one foot is in contact with the ground or floor at all times
step aerobics
a form of exercise that combines stepping up and down from a bench with arm movements
plyometric training
a form of aerobic exercise that requires forceful jumps or springing off the ground immediately after landing from a previous jump
interval training
a series of exercise work bouts (intervals) interspersed with low-intensty or rest intervals
MET
the rate or resting energy expenditure at rest; MET is the equivalent of 3.5 ml/kg/min
endorphins
morphine-like substances released from the pituitary gland (in the brain) during prolonged aerobic exercise; thought to induce feelings of euphoria and natural well-being
dysmenorrhea
painful menstruation
amenorrhea
cessation of regular menstrual flow
thermogenic response
amount of energy required to digest food
heat cramps
muscle spasms cuased by heat-induced changes in electrolyte balance in myscle cells
heat exhaustion
heat-related fatigue
heat stroke
emergency situation resulting fomr the body being subjected to high atmospheric temperatures
hypothermia
a breakdown in the body's ability to generate heat; a drop in body temperature below 95 degrees F
exercise intolerance
inability to function during exercise because of excessive fatigue or extreme feelings of discomfort
side stitch
a sharp pain in the side of the abdomen
shin splints
injury to the lower leg characterized by pain and irritation in the shin region of the leg
functional independence
ability to carry out activites of daily living without assistance from other individuals
nutrition
science that studies the relationship of foods to optimal health and performance
substrate
substance acted upon by an enzyme (examples: carbohydrates and fats)
nutrients
substances found in food that provide energy, regulate metabolism, and help with growth and repair of body tissues
nutrient density
a measure of the amount of nutrients and calories in various foods
calorie
the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Centigrade; used to measure the energy value of food and cost (energy expenditure) of physical activity
carbohydrates
a classification of dietary nutrient containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the major source of energy for the human body
simple carbohydrates
formed by simple or double sugar units with little nutritive value; divided into monosaccharides and disaccharides
monosaccharides
the simplest carbohydrates (sugars), formed by five- or six-carbon skeletons. the three most common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose
adipose tissue
fat cells in the body
disaccharides
simple carbohydrates formed by two monosaccharide units linked together, one of which is glucose. the major disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose
complex carbohydrates
carbohydrates formed by three or more simple sugar molecules linked together; also referred to as "polysaccharides"
glycogen
form in which glucose is stored in the body
dietary fiber
a complex carbohydrate in plant foods that is not digested but is essential to the digestion process
peristalsis
involuntary muscle contractions of intestinal walls that facilitate excretion of wastes
fats
nutrients containing carbon, hydrogen, some oxygen, and sometimes other chemical elements
transfatty acid
solidified fat formed by adding hydrogen to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats to increase shelf life
omega-3 fatty acid
polyunsaturated fatty acids found primarily in cold-water seafood, flaxseed, and flaxseed oil; thought to lower blood cholesterol and triglycerides
omega-6 fatty acids
polyunsaturated fatty acids found primarily in corn and sunflower oils and most oils in processed foods
lipoproteins
lipids covered by proteins, they transport fats in the blood; types are LDL, HDL, and VLDL
sterols
derived fats, of which cholesterol is the best-known example
proteins
complex organic compounds containing nitrogen and formed by combination of amino acids; the main substances used in the body to build and repair tissues
enzymes
catalysts that facilitate chemical reactions in the body
amino acids
chemical compounds that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the basic building blocks of the body uses to build different types of protein
vitamins
organic nutrients essential for normal metabolism, growth, and development of the body
minerals
inorganic elements found in the body and in food; essential for normal body functions
lactic acid
end produce of anaerobic glycolsis (metabolism)
dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
a general tem that descibes four types of nutrient standards that establish adequate amounts and maximum safe nutrient intakes in the diet. these standards are Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
estimated average requirements (EAR)
the amount of a nutrient that meets the dietary needs in half the people
recommended dietary allowances (RDA)
the daily amount of a nutrient (statistically determined from the EARs) considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of almost 98 percent of all healthy people in the United States
adequate intakes (AI)
the recommended amount of a nutrient intake when sufficient evidence is not available to calculate the EAR and subsequent RDA
Upper Intake Level (UL)
the highest level of nutrient intake that appers safe for most healthy people, beyond which exists an increased risk of adverse effects
daily values (DVs)
Reference values for nutrients and food components used in food labels
life expectancy
number of years a person is expected to lived based on the person's birth year
chronic diiseases
illnesses that last a long time
health
a state of complex well-being, and not just the absence of disease or infirmity
healthy life expectancy (HLE)
number of years a person is expected to live in good health. this number is obtained by subtracting ill-health years from the overall life expectancy
physical activity
bodily movement produced by skeletal msucles; requires expenditure of energy and produces progressive health benefits
exercise
a type of physical activity that requires planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement with the intent of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness
moderate physical activity
activity that uses 150 calories of energy per day, or 1,000 calories per week
risk factors
characteristics that predict the development of certain diseases
wellness
the constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy and achieve the highest potential for well-being. it encompasses seven dimensions-physical, emotional, mental, social, environmental, occupational, and spiritual-and integrates them all into a quality life
physical wellness
good physical fitness and confidence in one's personal ability to take care of health problems
emotional wellness
the ability to understand your own feelings, accept your limitations, and achieve emotional stability
mental wellness
a state in which your mind is engaged in lively interaction with the world around you
social wellness
the ability to relate well to others, both within and outside the family unit
environmental wellness
the capability to live in a clean and safe environment that is not detrimental to health
occupational wellness
the ability to perform one's job skillfully and effectively under conditions that provide personal and team satisfaction and adequately reward each individual
spiritual wellness
the sense that life is meaningful, that life has purpose, and that some power brings all humanity together; the ethics, values, and morals that guide us and give meaning and direction to life
prayer
sincere and humble communication with a higher power
altruism
true concern for the welfare of others