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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define nosocomial infections.
An infection acquired during hospitalization
Name the term used to describe the # of new cases of an infectious disease that occur within a defined population over an established period of time.
Incidents in Epidemiology
What causes AIDS?
What molecule does the immune system use to distinguish self from non-self?
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
Describe CD4+ helper T cells.
Master regulator/switch for the immune system
What is known as the complement system?
Primary effector system; results in enhanced inflammatory responses
Define and differentiate between parasites, normal microflora, and opportunistic pathogens.
Microflora = normal harmless bacteria in/on the body Pathogens = a select group of microorganisms that are capable of producing disease
What test is used to describe bacteria?
Gram stain
What is the function of the scrotum?
Maintain the temperature of the testes
Name the structure that produces testosterone.
The Leydig’s Cells of the testes
List the actions of testosterone.
Development of primary and secondary sex characteristics; musculoskeletal growth
Progesterone produces glandular dilation and active mucus secretion during which stage in the endometrial cycle?
Why does antibiotic therapy predispose patients to vulvovaginal candiasi?
Suppression of the normal protective bacterial flora
When does oogenesis of generation of the primordial ova by mitotic division occur?
6th week of fetal life
Name source(s) of estrogen.
What kinds of cells are detected using a pap smear?
Abnormal cells on the cervix or endocervix
What are risk factors for endometrial cancer?
HPV; Prolonged estrogen stimulation and obesity
Compare the amount of blood in the systemic arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Arteries = 16% Veins = 64% Capillaries = 4%
Describe the relationship between pressure and volume of blood in the circulation.
Volume sufficient to fill the blood vessels and a pressure that provides force to move blood
Name the factors that effect blood flow.
Pressure and resistance; vessel radius and blood viscosity
What are embolisms?
A mass of clotted blood that circulates in the bloodstream until becoming lodged in a vessel, obstructing the circulation (moving blood clot)
Describe the ventricular systole phase.
The contraction stage of the heart that drives blood into the arteries; opening of the lunar valve
Name the factors that contribute to the development of venous thrombosis
Venous stasis, hyper-reactivity of blood coagulation, and vascular trauma; immobility
List the signs and symptoms of a myocardial infarction (aka heart attack).
Chest pain, radiating pain (left arm, neck, and jaw), gastrointestinal complaints, fatigue, and arrhythmias; N/V
What has been suggested as the cause for the high frequency of myocardial infarctions from 6am to noon?
The circadian cycle; blood pressure is highest in the early morning hours; catecholamine making the vessels more sensitive
How many phases are there to the cardiac action potential? What does each phase represent?
Phase 0 = upstroke/rapid depolarization Phase 1 = early repolarization period Phase 2 = plateau *** Phase 3 = final rapid repolarization period
What causes the first heart sound?
Closure of the AV valve
Why would the cardiac output fall in rapid tachycardia?
Filling time reduction
How does an inotropic influence increase cardiac performance?
Increases the cardiac contractility
What are the characteristics of veins?
Thin walled, muscular, distensible, and collapsible
What are the causes of secondary hyperlipoproteinemia?
Obesity, high calorie intake, and diabetes
List dietary factors that increase serum cholesterol and its lipoprotein fraction.
Excess calorie intake, saturated fats, and cholesterol
What is thought to be the first sign of an abdominal aneurysm?
Neck and back pain; pulsating
What is known as essential hypertension?
A chronic elevation in blood pressure that occurs without evidence of other disease
How does hypertension affect the heart?
Increased demands leading to hypertrophy and heart failure
Describe the term cardiac tamponade.
Compression of the heart due to accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac
What is the functional cause of stable angina?
Fixed coronary obstruction; shortage of oxygen
What is one of the best indicators of blood flow to vital organs during shock?
Urine output
The concentration of which electrolyte inside the conduction system cells increases during the origination of the action potential?
What is the function of the larynx?
Connects the oropharynx with the trachea, speech, and protection of the lungs
How is most of the carbon dioxide that is produced a result of tissue metabolism?
Dissolved carbon dioxide = 10% Hemoglobin = 30% *Bicarbonate = 60%
Describe Legionnaire’s disease.
A form of bronchopneumonia caused by a gram negative rod
What is the difference between “pink puffers” with emphysema and “blue bloaters” with bronchitis?
Pink puffers – maintain relatively normal blood gas levels until late in disease Blue bloaters – unable to compensate by increasing ventilation, hypoxemia and cyanosis develop
What is known as tension pneumothorax?
Intrapleural pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure
What are the functional units of the kidney?
What does aldosterone increase the reabsorption of and what does ADH increase the reabsorption of?

Aldosterone = Na+
ADH = water
Describe the urine specific gravity test.
Provides an index of the hydration status and functional ability of the kidneys
Describe glomerulonephritis.
Inflammatory process of the glomerular structures
What can cause the interruption of renal blood flow?
Trauma and shock
What all can cause the failure to store urine?
Reflex bladder spasm and decrease in bladder volume, partial or extensive neural damage
What is the most common sign of bladder cancer?
Schistosoma haematobium; painless hematurea