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182 Cards in this Set

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physical, mental and social well-being
Health
abnormality in body function and threatens well being
Disease
study of disease
Pathology
objective abnormalities that can be seen or measured
Sign
subjective abnormalities felt only by the patient
Symptoms
collection of different signs and symptoms, usually with a comon cause
Syndrome
when signs and symptoms persist for a short time, then disappear
Acute
disease that develop slowly and lasts a long time (perhaps for life)
Chronic
characteristics of a disease somewhere between acute and chronic
Subacute
the study of all factors involved in causing a disease (theory of disease's cause)
Etiology
disease with undertermined causes
Idiopathic
disease can be transmitted from one person to another
Communicable
patterns of disease's development
Pathogenesis
stage during which the virus establishes itself in the patient, no signs or symptoms
Latent/Hidden
in an infectious disease, signs and symptoms occur
Incubation
recovery stage
Convelescence
reversal of a chronic disease
Remission
study of the occurance, distribution and transmission of disease in humans
Epidemiolgy
disease that is native to a local region
Endemic
a disease that spreads to many individuals
Epidemic
an epidemic that affets large geographical areas, even extending around the world
Pandemic
organized study of the underlying physiological processes associated with disease, general study of disease, understanding the mechanisms of a disease and its pathognesis
Pathophysiology
altered/mutated genes cause production of abnormal proteins that often can't perform their normal function or perform an abnormal function ie. cystic fibrosis
Genetic Mechanism
mechanism of disease
disease causing organisms ie parasites, microbes, viruses, bacteria and fungi
Pathogenic
mechanism of disease
neoplasms (new growth) that are abnormal tissue growths
Tumors or Cancer
mechanism of disease
toxic chemicals, extreme heat or cold, mechanical injury ie radiation burns, fractures, exposure to loud noises, exposure to allergens, poisonings
Physical and Chemical Agents
mechanism of disease
insufficient or imbalanced intake of nutrients ie beri beri, folate or iron deficiency anemia, Kwashiorkor, pernicious anemia, rickets, scurvy
Malnutrition
mechanism of disease
one's own immune system attacks the body ie Addison disease, cardiomyopathy, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, ulcerative colitis
Autoimmunity
mechanism disease
inappropriate or abnormally severe, prolonged inflammatory response
Inflammation
mechanism of disease
breakdown of tissues by many still unknown processes
Degeneration
mechanism of disease
and inherited trait that puts a person at a higher risk of developing a specific disease ie sickle cell anemia, light colored skin related to sun exposure and skin cancer
Genetic Factors
risk factor
biological and behavior differences at various stages of like ie middle ear infections in younger people
Age
risk factor
environmental exposures/diet can affect whether we contract illness or stay well ie working outside, low roughage diets and bowel cancer or cardiovascular diseases
Lifestyle
risk factor
constant stress triggers the sympathetic nervous system and can lead to high blood pressure , headaches and ulcers
Stress
risk factor
factors such as climate (cold/heat) or pollution can lead to diseases such as parasite infections, lung disease or damage due to freezing or sunburn
Environment
risk factors
a primary infection, such as AIDS, can result in a secondary (opportunistic) infection such as pneumonia
Preexisting conditions
risk factors
intracellular parasites that consist of a nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) core with a protein coat; not a living organism but can multiply and have a genetic code; they pirate host cell nutrients and organelles to produce more virus particles.
Viruses
a tiny primitive cell without a nucleus; causes disease in several ways: can secrete toxins, become intracellular parasites, form colonies that disrupt normal body functions; are classified according to function (aerobic/anaerobic), staining properties (gram+ or gram-), shape/size (bacilli, cocci, rods); can hibernate in the form of spores
Bacteria
simple organisms (plant-like) that do not have chloropyll and because they can't produce their own food, must consume (parasitize) other organisms ie yeasts and molds
Fungi
one cell organisms, larger than bacteria, with DNA organized into a nuclus; infects or destroys human cells ie amoebas, flagellates such as Giardia, ciliates, coccidia and sporazoa that cause malaria
Protozoa
large multicellular organisms that parasitize/injure humans
Pathogenic animals (metazoa)
(roundworms): infest a variety of human tissues; large parasites; transmitted by food or biting flies
Nematodes
Pathogenic animals (metazoa)
(flatworms/flukes): schistosoma, liver flukes, pork and beef tapeworms
Platyhelminthes
Pathogenic animals (metazoa)
(mites, ticks, lice and fleas): includes spiders, scorpions, mosquitoes and bees
Anthropods
Pathogenic animals (metazoa)
destruction of all living organisms: instruments are sterilized in autoclaves or by radiation between uses by different people
Sterilization
Prevention and Control
destruction of most or all pathogens on an object; achieved through use of chemicals, wiping down surfaces or bathing surfaces; commonly used chemicals include: alchohol, iodine, chlorine, phenol, and soaps
Disinfection
Prevention and Control
inhibition or inactivation of pathogens through use of chemicals such as alcohol, chlorhexidine, iodine
Antisepsis
Prevention and Control
seperation of infected people from non-infected people through the use of quarantine or special gowns/masks/gloves and rooms
Isolation
Prevention and Control
spread of disease due to contact between an infected person and another person; pathogens can be spread via the air, handling contaminated materials or most often thru physical contact ie common cold
Person to person contact
Spread of disease
pathogens found in local environments (food, water supply, soil, or surfaces in the home, school or workplace) can be spread when individuals come incontact ie C. dificile infection spreads via contact with spore left in the room
Environmental contact
Spread of disease
organisms that live on another organism can multipy and cause serious illness if conditions change and the infective organism gets the opportunity to grow ie vaginal yeast infection related to antibiotic use
Opportunistic invasion
Spread of disease
a vector (carrier of a pathogenic organism) infects another organism ie mosquito with West Nile virus or malaria bits a human and transmits the disease
Transmission from a vector
Spread of disease
a killed or weakened (attenuated) pathogen is injected into a person and stimulates the immune system of that person the create antibodies, which make the person resistant to the original pathogen
Vaccine
a compound produced by a living organism that destroys or inhibits the growth of pathogens ie penicillin produced by a fungus and streptomycin produced by a bacterium
Antibiotic
an agent that inhibits reproduction of viruses but does not kill them; used to control viral infections ie acyclovir, AZT
Antiviral
abnormal growth of cells or a tumor
Neoplasm
tumors that remain localized
Benign
tumors that spread to other parts of the body
Malignant
another name for malignant tumor
Cancer
spread of cancerous cells from the original tumor to other sites in the body where new tumors form
Metastasis
a benign tumor arising from epithelial tissue that forms a fingerlike projection ie warts
Papilloma
benign tumor of glandular epithelium
Adenoma
pigmented tumors of the skin arising from epithelial tissue ie moles
Nevus
a benign connective tissue tumor arrising from adipose (fat) tissue
Lipoma
a benign connective tissue arising from bone
Osteoma
a benign connective tissue tumor arising from cartilage tissue
Chondroma
a malignant carcinoma arising from epithelial tissue (specifically melanocytes, the pigment producing skin cells)
Melanoma
generalized term for malignant tumors arising from glandular epithelium
Adenocarcinoma
malignant connective tissue tumors arising from lymphatic tissue
Lymphoma
malignant connective tissue tumor arising from bone tissue
Osteosarcoma
connective tissue malignancy arising from bone marrow
Myeloma
malignant tumor arinsing from fibrous connective tissue
Fibrosarcoma
a syndrome associated with cancer and other chronic diseases that involves loss of appetite, loss of weight and generalized weakness
Cachexia
prediction of what lies in store for the individual based on their current diagnosis
Prognosis
certain types of cancers appear to be linked to "cancer genes" (oncogenes) inherited from one's ancestors ie some types of breast cancers and neuroblastomas
Genetic factors
Causes of cancer
chemicals can affect the genetic activity in some way that results in abnormal cell division ie benzene is a known carcinogen
Carcinogens
Causes of cancer
certain types of cancer (leukemia)are more likely to occur in younger people; others (colon cancer) in older people
Age
Causes of cancer
exposure to toxic chemicals, sunlight, radiation, metals such as nickel and chromium, and inhalation of asbestos can lead to cancers
Environment
Causes of cancer
viruses affect the genetic machinery of cells; the papiloma virus has been found to cause cervical cancers in women ie genital warts
Viruses
Causes of cancer
sores that wont heal, unusual bleeding (rectal or urine or from moles), changes in warts or moles, a lump or thickening of tissue, persistent hoarseness or cough, chronic indigestion, a change in bowel or bladder function, or bone pain that wakes a person at night and is located on one side
8 warning signs of cancer
performing a monthly self exam of breasts and testicles, feeling for lumps and thickening of tissue
Self examination
method of detecting cancer
X-rays beamed through a person combined with computer interpretation gives images of sections of the body (CT Scan)
Computerized tomography
method of detecting cancer, diagnostic imaging
a scanner that uses magnetic fields to induce tissues to emit radio frequency waves which are interpreted by a computer to produce sectional images, often produces sharper images to soft tissues than a CT scanner can (MRI)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
method of detecting cancer, diagnostic imaging
high frequency (ultrasonic)waves reflect off of internal structures to produce an image (a sonogram), does not involve the use of X-rays, image is not as sharp as other methods of scanning
Ultrasound
method of detecting cancer, diagnostic imaging
the removal and examination (usually under a microscope) of tissue
Biopsy
method of detecting cancer
with some types of cancer, the concentration of normal blood components (ions or enzymes) may be changed; also, certain types of cancer cells may produce or trigger production of tumor markers (abnormal substances)in the blood.
Blood tests
method of detecting cancer
use of cytotoxic (cell killing)or antineoplastic drugs to destroy malignant cells; can harm normal cells
Chemotherapy
cancer treatment
use of destructive X-rays or gamma radiation to destroy cancer cells; can harm normal cells
Radiation therapy
cancer treatment
use of intense beams of light to destroy a tumor
Laser therapy
cancer treatment
giving medications to boost the body's own immune system to fight off cancer cells
Immunotherapy
cancer treatment
removal of a cancerous lesion
Surgical intervention
cancer treatment
heat, redness, swelling and pain
4 primary signs of inflamation
chemicals that begin the inflammatory response when tissue cells are damaged
Inflammation mediators
the fluid that accumulates around damaged/inflammed tissues that has blood proteins that form a clot; eventually, is cleared away by the lymphatic system
Exudate
the movement of white blood cells to an area of tissue injury in response to release of certain chemicals by the damaged tissue cells
Chemotaxis
thickened inflammatory exudates with the remains of dead cells and bacteria, wbc and other debris
Pus
occurs when an irritant spreads throughout the entire body or when inflammatory mediators cause changes throughout the body
Systemic inflammation
occurs when inflammation is confined to a specific part of the body
Local inflammation
in immediate, protective response that promotes elimination of an irritant and subsequent tissue repair
Acute inflammation
can be either local or systemic but always leads to tissue damage ie arthritis, asthma, eczema, chronic bronchitis
Chronic inflammation
a systemic inflammatory response related to mediators causing the central nervous system to reset its thermostat to a higher than normal temperature; thought to kill/inhibit infecting microorganisms
Fever
tissue repair where new cells are similar in function to the damaged cells
Regeneration
new cells are different from the original cells and form scar tissue
Replacement
fibrous tissue replaces damaged tissue
Fibrosis
doctor specialized in cancer
Oncologist
a physician who studies disease pattern in specific groups of people
Epidemiologists
large round bacteria found singly, in pairs, or on strings
Cocci
large rod shaped cells found singly or in groups
Bacilli
a primary condition can put a person at risk for developing a ___________condition
Secondary
conditions caused by psychological factors are sometimes called___________ disorders
Psychogenic
scientists at the ________ ________ ________ ________ continuosly track the spread of disease in this country and worldwide
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Genetic factors, age , lifestyle, stress, environmental factors and prexisting conditions are ________ ________ that may be responsible for predisposing a person to disease
Risk Factors
Autoimmunity literally means ________
Self immunity
abnormal tissue growths may also be refered to as ________
Neoplasms
an organism that lives in or on another organism to obtain its nutrients is called a ________
Parasites
altered or ________ genes can cause abnormal proteins to be made
Mutated
many diseases are best understood as disturbances of ________
Homeostasis
the smallest of all pathogens (microscopic, non-living particles) are called ________
Viruses
a tiny primitive cell without a nucleus is called ________
Bacterium
an example if a viral disease is ________
Mononucleosis
bacteria that require oxygen for metabolism are classified as ________
Aerobic
Bacilli are shaped like ________
Rods
without chlorophyll, ________ cannot produce their own food, so they must consume or parasitize other organisms
Fungi
Protazoa include
Amoebas, flagellates, ciliates
pathogenic animals include
Nematodes, platyhelminths, and arthropods
The key to preventing disease caused by pathogenic organisms is to
Stop them from entering the body
The destruction of all living organisms is
Sterilization
ways in which pathogens can spread
Person to person, environmental contact, opportunistic invasion, transmission by vector
Compounds produced by certain living organisms that kill or inhibit pathogens are
Antibiotics
Benign tumors usually grow (slowly/quickly)
Slowly
Malignant tumors (are or are not) encapsulated
Are not
An example of a benign tumor that arises from epithellial tissue is (papiloma/lipoma)
Papiloma
A general term for malignant tumor that arise from connective tissue is (melanoma/sarcoma)
Sarcoma
Abnormal, undifferentiated tumor cells are often produced by a process called (hyperplasia/anaplasia)
Anaplasia
A cancer specialist is an (osteologist/oncologist)
Oncologist
The Papanicolaou test is a (biopsy/MRI)
Biopsy
(Staging/Grading) involves classifying a tumor based on its size and the extent of its spread.
Staging
Cachexia involves a loss of (appetite/hair)
Appetite
As tissue cells are damaged they release inflammation mediators such as histamines, prostaglandins, and kinins (T/F)
True
Inflammatory exudate is quickly removed by lymphatic vessels and carried to lymph nodes, which act as filters (T/F)
False (Slowly)
Inflammation mediators can also act as signals that attract red blood cells to the injury site (T/F)
False (White)
The movement of white blood cells in response to chemical attractants is called chemotaxis (T/F)
True
When new cells are similar to those that they replace, the proces is known as replacement (T/F)
False (Regeneration)
Fevers usually subside after the irritant has been elimnated (T/F)
True
The fever response in children and in the elderly often differs from that in the normal adult (T/F)
True
Roundworm
Nematode
Cancer gene
Oncogene
Rod-Shaped cells
Bacilli
Spreads disease to other organisms
Vector
Lack chlorophyll
Fungi
Possess pseudopodia
Amebas
Tissue swelling
Edema
Glandular cancer
Adenocarcinoma
Microscopic organism
Microbe
Thick inflammatory exudate
Pus
If antibodies are found in an immunological test, it is assumed that
The patient has been exposed to a pathogen
Streptomycin is an example of
Antibiotic
Study of the underlying physiological processes associated with disease leads to
Strategies of treatment and prevention
Sever loss of appetite, weight loss, and general weakness in a cancer patient describes
Cachexia
When signs and symptoms of a disease appear suddenly, persist for a long time, then disappear, the disease is said to be
Acute
The actual pattern of a disease's development is called
Pathogenesis
The most significant strategy for combating disease is
Therapy and prevention
Which is not a disease mechanism a.genetic mechanisn, b.malnutrition, c.autoimmunity, d.inflammation
All are disease mechanisms
What is autoimmunity
The immune system attacking the body
Conditions caused by psycholgical factors are sometimes called
psychogenic
Microscopic organisms that include bacteria, fungi and protazoa are called
Microbes
Severe acute respiraory syndrome (SARS) is caused by
Flavivirus
Prions can best be described as
a pathogenic protein molecule that converts normal protein to abnormal proteins
What means are used to classify bacteria
staining properties, shape and size, function
Where would you find pathogenic fungi?
on or near the skin or mucous membranes
A vector of a disease is
an organism that spreads disease to other organisms
An attenuated pathogen that is given to a person to stimulate immunity is called
Vaccine
Describe a malignant neoplasm
not encapsulated and migrates via the lymphatic or blood vessels
Malignant tumors that arise from epithelia tissues generally are called
Carcinomas
This type of benign tumor forms from glandular epithelium
Adenoma
Describe the proccess of hyperplasia
production of too many cells
What is the oldest and most widely used method of noninvasive imaging of the internal body structures
Radiography
Inflammatory exudates can be described as
fluid that accumulates in the inflammed tissues
The movement of white blood cells in response to chemical attractants is called
Chemotaxis
requiring an absence of oxygen
anaerobic
microbe that thrive in very harsh environments that are very hot , very acid or very salty, none have been found to infect humans
archaea
round or oval bacteria that can only reproduce in other cells, sometimes called obligate parasites ie rickettsia, chlamydia
small bacteria