Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

182 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
physical, mental and social well-being
abnormality in body function and threatens well being
study of disease
objective abnormalities that can be seen or measured
subjective abnormalities felt only by the patient
collection of different signs and symptoms, usually with a comon cause
when signs and symptoms persist for a short time, then disappear
disease that develop slowly and lasts a long time (perhaps for life)
characteristics of a disease somewhere between acute and chronic
the study of all factors involved in causing a disease (theory of disease's cause)
disease with undertermined causes
disease can be transmitted from one person to another
patterns of disease's development
stage during which the virus establishes itself in the patient, no signs or symptoms
in an infectious disease, signs and symptoms occur
recovery stage
reversal of a chronic disease
study of the occurance, distribution and transmission of disease in humans
disease that is native to a local region
a disease that spreads to many individuals
an epidemic that affets large geographical areas, even extending around the world
organized study of the underlying physiological processes associated with disease, general study of disease, understanding the mechanisms of a disease and its pathognesis
altered/mutated genes cause production of abnormal proteins that often can't perform their normal function or perform an abnormal function ie. cystic fibrosis
Genetic Mechanism
mechanism of disease
disease causing organisms ie parasites, microbes, viruses, bacteria and fungi
mechanism of disease
neoplasms (new growth) that are abnormal tissue growths
Tumors or Cancer
mechanism of disease
toxic chemicals, extreme heat or cold, mechanical injury ie radiation burns, fractures, exposure to loud noises, exposure to allergens, poisonings
Physical and Chemical Agents
mechanism of disease
insufficient or imbalanced intake of nutrients ie beri beri, folate or iron deficiency anemia, Kwashiorkor, pernicious anemia, rickets, scurvy
mechanism of disease
one's own immune system attacks the body ie Addison disease, cardiomyopathy, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, ulcerative colitis
mechanism disease
inappropriate or abnormally severe, prolonged inflammatory response
mechanism of disease
breakdown of tissues by many still unknown processes
mechanism of disease
and inherited trait that puts a person at a higher risk of developing a specific disease ie sickle cell anemia, light colored skin related to sun exposure and skin cancer
Genetic Factors
risk factor
biological and behavior differences at various stages of like ie middle ear infections in younger people
risk factor
environmental exposures/diet can affect whether we contract illness or stay well ie working outside, low roughage diets and bowel cancer or cardiovascular diseases
risk factor
constant stress triggers the sympathetic nervous system and can lead to high blood pressure , headaches and ulcers
risk factor
factors such as climate (cold/heat) or pollution can lead to diseases such as parasite infections, lung disease or damage due to freezing or sunburn
risk factors
a primary infection, such as AIDS, can result in a secondary (opportunistic) infection such as pneumonia
Preexisting conditions
risk factors
intracellular parasites that consist of a nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) core with a protein coat; not a living organism but can multiply and have a genetic code; they pirate host cell nutrients and organelles to produce more virus particles.
a tiny primitive cell without a nucleus; causes disease in several ways: can secrete toxins, become intracellular parasites, form colonies that disrupt normal body functions; are classified according to function (aerobic/anaerobic), staining properties (gram+ or gram-), shape/size (bacilli, cocci, rods); can hibernate in the form of spores
simple organisms (plant-like) that do not have chloropyll and because they can't produce their own food, must consume (parasitize) other organisms ie yeasts and molds
one cell organisms, larger than bacteria, with DNA organized into a nuclus; infects or destroys human cells ie amoebas, flagellates such as Giardia, ciliates, coccidia and sporazoa that cause malaria
large multicellular organisms that parasitize/injure humans
Pathogenic animals (metazoa)
(roundworms): infest a variety of human tissues; large parasites; transmitted by food or biting flies
Pathogenic animals (metazoa)
(flatworms/flukes): schistosoma, liver flukes, pork and beef tapeworms
Pathogenic animals (metazoa)
(mites, ticks, lice and fleas): includes spiders, scorpions, mosquitoes and bees
Pathogenic animals (metazoa)
destruction of all living organisms: instruments are sterilized in autoclaves or by radiation between uses by different people
Prevention and Control
destruction of most or all pathogens on an object; achieved through use of chemicals, wiping down surfaces or bathing surfaces; commonly used chemicals include: alchohol, iodine, chlorine, phenol, and soaps
Prevention and Control
inhibition or inactivation of pathogens through use of chemicals such as alcohol, chlorhexidine, iodine
Prevention and Control
seperation of infected people from non-infected people through the use of quarantine or special gowns/masks/gloves and rooms
Prevention and Control
spread of disease due to contact between an infected person and another person; pathogens can be spread via the air, handling contaminated materials or most often thru physical contact ie common cold
Person to person contact
Spread of disease
pathogens found in local environments (food, water supply, soil, or surfaces in the home, school or workplace) can be spread when individuals come incontact ie C. dificile infection spreads via contact with spore left in the room
Environmental contact
Spread of disease
organisms that live on another organism can multipy and cause serious illness if conditions change and the infective organism gets the opportunity to grow ie vaginal yeast infection related to antibiotic use
Opportunistic invasion
Spread of disease
a vector (carrier of a pathogenic organism) infects another organism ie mosquito with West Nile virus or malaria bits a human and transmits the disease
Transmission from a vector
Spread of disease
a killed or weakened (attenuated) pathogen is injected into a person and stimulates the immune system of that person the create antibodies, which make the person resistant to the original pathogen
a compound produced by a living organism that destroys or inhibits the growth of pathogens ie penicillin produced by a fungus and streptomycin produced by a bacterium
an agent that inhibits reproduction of viruses but does not kill them; used to control viral infections ie acyclovir, AZT
abnormal growth of cells or a tumor
tumors that remain localized
tumors that spread to other parts of the body
another name for malignant tumor
spread of cancerous cells from the original tumor to other sites in the body where new tumors form
a benign tumor arising from epithelial tissue that forms a fingerlike projection ie warts
benign tumor of glandular epithelium
pigmented tumors of the skin arising from epithelial tissue ie moles
a benign connective tissue tumor arrising from adipose (fat) tissue
a benign connective tissue arising from bone
a benign connective tissue tumor arising from cartilage tissue
a malignant carcinoma arising from epithelial tissue (specifically melanocytes, the pigment producing skin cells)
generalized term for malignant tumors arising from glandular epithelium
malignant connective tissue tumors arising from lymphatic tissue
malignant connective tissue tumor arising from bone tissue
connective tissue malignancy arising from bone marrow
malignant tumor arinsing from fibrous connective tissue
a syndrome associated with cancer and other chronic diseases that involves loss of appetite, loss of weight and generalized weakness
prediction of what lies in store for the individual based on their current diagnosis
certain types of cancers appear to be linked to "cancer genes" (oncogenes) inherited from one's ancestors ie some types of breast cancers and neuroblastomas
Genetic factors
Causes of cancer
chemicals can affect the genetic activity in some way that results in abnormal cell division ie benzene is a known carcinogen
Causes of cancer
certain types of cancer (leukemia)are more likely to occur in younger people; others (colon cancer) in older people
Causes of cancer
exposure to toxic chemicals, sunlight, radiation, metals such as nickel and chromium, and inhalation of asbestos can lead to cancers
Causes of cancer
viruses affect the genetic machinery of cells; the papiloma virus has been found to cause cervical cancers in women ie genital warts
Causes of cancer
sores that wont heal, unusual bleeding (rectal or urine or from moles), changes in warts or moles, a lump or thickening of tissue, persistent hoarseness or cough, chronic indigestion, a change in bowel or bladder function, or bone pain that wakes a person at night and is located on one side
8 warning signs of cancer
performing a monthly self exam of breasts and testicles, feeling for lumps and thickening of tissue
Self examination
method of detecting cancer
X-rays beamed through a person combined with computer interpretation gives images of sections of the body (CT Scan)
Computerized tomography
method of detecting cancer, diagnostic imaging
a scanner that uses magnetic fields to induce tissues to emit radio frequency waves which are interpreted by a computer to produce sectional images, often produces sharper images to soft tissues than a CT scanner can (MRI)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
method of detecting cancer, diagnostic imaging
high frequency (ultrasonic)waves reflect off of internal structures to produce an image (a sonogram), does not involve the use of X-rays, image is not as sharp as other methods of scanning
method of detecting cancer, diagnostic imaging
the removal and examination (usually under a microscope) of tissue
method of detecting cancer
with some types of cancer, the concentration of normal blood components (ions or enzymes) may be changed; also, certain types of cancer cells may produce or trigger production of tumor markers (abnormal substances)in the blood.
Blood tests
method of detecting cancer
use of cytotoxic (cell killing)or antineoplastic drugs to destroy malignant cells; can harm normal cells
cancer treatment
use of destructive X-rays or gamma radiation to destroy cancer cells; can harm normal cells
Radiation therapy
cancer treatment
use of intense beams of light to destroy a tumor
Laser therapy
cancer treatment
giving medications to boost the body's own immune system to fight off cancer cells
cancer treatment
removal of a cancerous lesion
Surgical intervention
cancer treatment
heat, redness, swelling and pain
4 primary signs of inflamation
chemicals that begin the inflammatory response when tissue cells are damaged
Inflammation mediators
the fluid that accumulates around damaged/inflammed tissues that has blood proteins that form a clot; eventually, is cleared away by the lymphatic system
the movement of white blood cells to an area of tissue injury in response to release of certain chemicals by the damaged tissue cells
thickened inflammatory exudates with the remains of dead cells and bacteria, wbc and other debris
occurs when an irritant spreads throughout the entire body or when inflammatory mediators cause changes throughout the body
Systemic inflammation
occurs when inflammation is confined to a specific part of the body
Local inflammation
in immediate, protective response that promotes elimination of an irritant and subsequent tissue repair
Acute inflammation
can be either local or systemic but always leads to tissue damage ie arthritis, asthma, eczema, chronic bronchitis
Chronic inflammation
a systemic inflammatory response related to mediators causing the central nervous system to reset its thermostat to a higher than normal temperature; thought to kill/inhibit infecting microorganisms
tissue repair where new cells are similar in function to the damaged cells
new cells are different from the original cells and form scar tissue
fibrous tissue replaces damaged tissue
doctor specialized in cancer
a physician who studies disease pattern in specific groups of people
large round bacteria found singly, in pairs, or on strings
large rod shaped cells found singly or in groups
a primary condition can put a person at risk for developing a ___________condition
conditions caused by psychological factors are sometimes called___________ disorders
scientists at the ________ ________ ________ ________ continuosly track the spread of disease in this country and worldwide
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Genetic factors, age , lifestyle, stress, environmental factors and prexisting conditions are ________ ________ that may be responsible for predisposing a person to disease
Risk Factors
Autoimmunity literally means ________
Self immunity
abnormal tissue growths may also be refered to as ________
an organism that lives in or on another organism to obtain its nutrients is called a ________
altered or ________ genes can cause abnormal proteins to be made
many diseases are best understood as disturbances of ________
the smallest of all pathogens (microscopic, non-living particles) are called ________
a tiny primitive cell without a nucleus is called ________
an example if a viral disease is ________
bacteria that require oxygen for metabolism are classified as ________
Bacilli are shaped like ________
without chlorophyll, ________ cannot produce their own food, so they must consume or parasitize other organisms
Protazoa include
Amoebas, flagellates, ciliates
pathogenic animals include
Nematodes, platyhelminths, and arthropods
The key to preventing disease caused by pathogenic organisms is to
Stop them from entering the body
The destruction of all living organisms is
ways in which pathogens can spread
Person to person, environmental contact, opportunistic invasion, transmission by vector
Compounds produced by certain living organisms that kill or inhibit pathogens are
Benign tumors usually grow (slowly/quickly)
Malignant tumors (are or are not) encapsulated
Are not
An example of a benign tumor that arises from epithellial tissue is (papiloma/lipoma)
A general term for malignant tumor that arise from connective tissue is (melanoma/sarcoma)
Abnormal, undifferentiated tumor cells are often produced by a process called (hyperplasia/anaplasia)
A cancer specialist is an (osteologist/oncologist)
The Papanicolaou test is a (biopsy/MRI)
(Staging/Grading) involves classifying a tumor based on its size and the extent of its spread.
Cachexia involves a loss of (appetite/hair)
As tissue cells are damaged they release inflammation mediators such as histamines, prostaglandins, and kinins (T/F)
Inflammatory exudate is quickly removed by lymphatic vessels and carried to lymph nodes, which act as filters (T/F)
False (Slowly)
Inflammation mediators can also act as signals that attract red blood cells to the injury site (T/F)
False (White)
The movement of white blood cells in response to chemical attractants is called chemotaxis (T/F)
When new cells are similar to those that they replace, the proces is known as replacement (T/F)
False (Regeneration)
Fevers usually subside after the irritant has been elimnated (T/F)
The fever response in children and in the elderly often differs from that in the normal adult (T/F)
Cancer gene
Rod-Shaped cells
Spreads disease to other organisms
Lack chlorophyll
Possess pseudopodia
Tissue swelling
Glandular cancer
Microscopic organism
Thick inflammatory exudate
If antibodies are found in an immunological test, it is assumed that
The patient has been exposed to a pathogen
Streptomycin is an example of
Study of the underlying physiological processes associated with disease leads to
Strategies of treatment and prevention
Sever loss of appetite, weight loss, and general weakness in a cancer patient describes
When signs and symptoms of a disease appear suddenly, persist for a long time, then disappear, the disease is said to be
The actual pattern of a disease's development is called
The most significant strategy for combating disease is
Therapy and prevention
Which is not a disease mechanism a.genetic mechanisn, b.malnutrition, c.autoimmunity, d.inflammation
All are disease mechanisms
What is autoimmunity
The immune system attacking the body
Conditions caused by psycholgical factors are sometimes called
Microscopic organisms that include bacteria, fungi and protazoa are called
Severe acute respiraory syndrome (SARS) is caused by
Prions can best be described as
a pathogenic protein molecule that converts normal protein to abnormal proteins
What means are used to classify bacteria
staining properties, shape and size, function
Where would you find pathogenic fungi?
on or near the skin or mucous membranes
A vector of a disease is
an organism that spreads disease to other organisms
An attenuated pathogen that is given to a person to stimulate immunity is called
Describe a malignant neoplasm
not encapsulated and migrates via the lymphatic or blood vessels
Malignant tumors that arise from epithelia tissues generally are called
This type of benign tumor forms from glandular epithelium
Describe the proccess of hyperplasia
production of too many cells
What is the oldest and most widely used method of noninvasive imaging of the internal body structures
Inflammatory exudates can be described as
fluid that accumulates in the inflammed tissues
The movement of white blood cells in response to chemical attractants is called
requiring an absence of oxygen
microbe that thrive in very harsh environments that are very hot , very acid or very salty, none have been found to infect humans
round or oval bacteria that can only reproduce in other cells, sometimes called obligate parasites ie rickettsia, chlamydia
small bacteria