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153 Cards in this Set

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What are the six dimensions of wellness?
Physical, Emotional, Social, Intellectual, Environmental, Spiritual
What are six basic wellness behaviors?
1. Stay physically fit
2. Eat healthily
3. Manage your weight
4. Manage your stress
5. Avoid smoking, drugs and alcohol abuse
6. Practice accident, injury and disease prevention
What are the typical stages of the behavior change process?
1. Precontemplation
2. Contemplation
3. Preparation
4. Action
5. Maintenance
6. Termination
What are the three primary levels of physical activity?
- Lifestyle/light (< 3 METS)
- Moderate (3 to 6 METS)
- Vigorous (6+ METS)
What are the five Health related Components of Fitness?
- Cardio respiratory endurance
- Muscular strength
- Muscular endurance
- Flexibility
- Body Composition
What are the six Skill-related Components of Fitness?
- Agility
- Balance
- Coordination
- Power
- Speed
- Reaction Time
Describe the principle of OVERLOAD.
subjecting the body or body system to more physical activity than it is used to
Describe the principle of PROGRESSION.
a gradual increase in a training program’s intensity, frequency, and/or time
Describe the principle of SPECIFICITY.
the concept that only the body systems worked during training will show adaptations
Describe the principle of REVERSIBILITY.
the concept that training adaptations will revert toward initial levels when training is stopped
Describe the principle of INDIVIDUALITY.
refers to the variable nature of physical activity dose-response or adaptations in different persons
Describe the principle of RECOVERY.
there must be a rest period between adaptations so the body isn’t over-strained
How much physical activity is recommended for optimal health and wellness?
30+ minutes of moderate exercise per day, for most days of the week
What are the general strategies for exercising safely?
- Warm Up before
- Cool Down after
- Properly Learn Skills for Chosen Activity
- Consume Enough Energy and Water for Exercise
- Select Appropriate Footwear and Clothing
How much should you drink/eat before exercising? (Also how long before you exercise should you drink/eat?)
EAT:
- Small meal 1½ to 2 hours before exercise
OR
- light snack 30 to 60 minutes prior

DRINK:
- 17 to 20 oz of fluid 2 to 3 hours before
AND
- 7 to 10 oz 10 to 20 minutes prior
What individual attributes should be taken into account before beginning a fitness program?
- Age
- Weight
- Current Fitness Level
- Disabilities
- Special Health Concerns
What are some strategies for beginning to design your own individualized fitness program?
- Think carefully about motivations, goals, needs
- Select activities to meet those needs
- Apply FITT formula
- Make conscious long-term commitment
What is a MET?
the standard metabolic equivalent used to estimate the amount of energy (oxygen) used by the body during physical activity; 1 MET = resting or sitting quietly
What is Training Effect?
an increase in physical fitness as a result of overload adaptations in body systems
What is the FITT formula?
a formula for designing a safe and effective exercise program that specifies Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type
What is a mode?
the specific type of exercise performed
What are SMART goals?
Goals that are:
• Specific
• Measurable
• Action-oriented
• Realistic
• Time-oriented
Define cardio-respiratory fitness.
the ability of your cardiovascular and respiratory systems to supply oxygen and nutrients to large muscle groups in order to sustain continuous activity
Discuss the structures and functions of the cardio-respiratory system at rest and during exercise.
Rest:
• Maintain homeostasis
• Heart rate is between 50 to 90 beats per minute
• Breathing rate is around 12 to 20 breaths per minute
• Blood Pressure 120 systolic and below 80 diastolic
Exercise
• Arteries dilate
What is ATP?
Adenosine TriPhosphate; the cellular form of energy
What are the 3 Metabolic Systems and when does each kick in?
- Immediate Energy System (immediately to 30 seconds)
- Nonoxidative (Anaerobic) Energy System (30 seconds to 3 minutes)
- Oxidative (Aerobic) Energy System (3 minutes and after)
How does the Immediate Energy System work during exercise?
it draws upon ATP stored in muscles for explosive activities
How does the Nonoxidative (Anaerobic) Energy System work during exercise?
• Breakdown of glucose to produce ATP
• 30 seconds into activity it supplies majority of needed ATP
• Muscular fatigue from breakdown of glucose producing high levels of lactic acid
How does the Oxidative (Aerobic) Energy System work during exercise?
Mitochondria break down fat glucose and protein
What are several ways to assess your cardio-respiratory fitness level?
• Maximal Oxygen Consumption
• Submaximal Heart Rate Responses
• Test cardiorespiratory fitness in the field/classroom
o 3 Minute Step Test
o One-Mile Walking Test
o 1.5 Mile Running Test
Describe how to prevent injuries during cardio-respiratory training.
• Design a personalized, balanced cardiorespiratory program
• Wear appropriate footwear and clothing
• Pay attention to your exercise environment
o Prevent heat/cold-related illness
o Be aware of the impact of air quality
o Watch for hazards
• Drink enough water
• Understand how to prevent or treat common injuries
o RICE
Define ATRIA.
upper chambers of the heart that collect blood from the rest of the body
Define VENTRICLES.
lower chambers of the heart that pump blood to the rest of the body
Define PULMONARY CIRCULATION.
blood circulation from the heart to the lungs and back
Define SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION.
blood circulation from the heart to the rest of the body and back
Define PULMONARY ARTERY.
the artery that carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
Define AORTA.
the artery that carries blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body
Define SYSTOLE.
the contraction phase of the heart cycle
Define DIASTOLE.
the relaxation phase of the heart cycle
Define ARTERIES.
HIGH-pressure blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart to the lungs cells
Define VEINS.
LOW-pressure blood vessels that carry blood from the cells or lungs back TO the heart
Define BLOOD PRESSURE.
the pressure that blood in the arteries exerts on the arterial walls
What is SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?
blood pressure during the systole phase of the heart cycle
What is DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?
blood pressure during the diastole phase of the heart cycle
What is CREATINE PHOSPHATE?
a molecule that is stored in muscle cells and used in the immediate energy system to donate a phosphate to make ATP
What does AEROBIC mean?
dependent on oxygen (oxidative)
What does ANAEROBIC mean?
without oxygen (nonoxidative)
What is LACTIC ACID?
an end-product of the nonoxidative breakdown of glucose that can increase acidity in muscles and the blood and cause muscular fatigue
What are MITOCHONDRIA?
cellular structures where oxidative energy production takes place
Define HOMEOSTASIS.
a stable constant internal environment
What is CARDIAC OUTPUT?
the volume of blood ejected from the heart in 1 minute; expressed in liters or milliliters per minute
What is HEMOGLOBIN?
a four-part globular, iron-containing protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells
What is PLASMA?
the yellow-colored fluid portion of blood that contains water, proteins, hormones, ions, energy sources, and blood gases.
Define STROKE VOLUME.
the volume of blood ejected from the heart in one heartbeat; expressed in liters or milliliters per beat
Define METABOLIC SYNDROME.
a clustering of three or more heart disease and diabetes risk factors in one person (high blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, decreased HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, overweight with fat mostly around the waste)
Define RESTING HEART RATE.
the number of times your heart beats in a minute while the body is at rest; typically 50 to 90 beats per minute
Define MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION (VO2max).
the highest rate of oxygen consumption your body is capable of during maximal exercise; expressed in either liters per minute (L/min) or milliliters per minute per kilogram of body weight (ml/kg x min)
Define MAXIMAL HEART RATE (HRmax)
the highest heart rate you can achieve during maximal exercise
What is an INTERVAL WORKOUT?
a workout that alternates periods of higher-intensity exercise with periods of lower-intensity exercise or rest.
What is CIRCUIT TRAINING?
a workout where exercisers move from one exercise station to another, after a certain number of repetitions or amount of time.
What is RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION (RPE)?
a subjective scale of exercise intensity
What is the TALK TEST?
a method of measuring exercise intensity based on assessing your ability to speak during exercise
What is HEART RATE RESERVE (HRR)?
the number of beats per minute available or in reserve for exercise heart rate increases; maximal heart rate minus resting heart rate
What is CROSS TRAINING?
the practice of using different exercise modes or types in your cardiorespiratory training program
What are HEAT CRAMPS?
severe cramping in the large muscle groups and abdomen caused by high fluid and electrolyte loss in sustained exertion in the heat
Describe HEAT EXHAUSTION.
an elevated core body temperature, headache, fatigue, profuse sweating, nausea, and clammy skin brought on by sustained exertion in the heat with dehydration and electrolyte losses
Describe HEAT STROKE.
a core body temperature above 104 degrees, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rapid pulse, cessation of sweating, and disorientation resulting from extreme exertion in very hot conditions
Describe HYPOTHERMIA.
a condition where the core temperature of the body drops below the level required for sustaining normal bodily functions
What is DEHYDRATION?
a process that leads to a lack of sufficient fluid in the body, affecting normal body functioning
What does RICE stand for?
rest, ice, compression, and elevation; a method of treating common exercise injuries
Define BODY COMPOSITION.
the relative amounts of fat and lean tissue in the body
What does BMI stand for?
Body Mass Index; a number calculated from a person’s weight and height that is used to assess risk for possible present or future health problems
What are 3 ways to perform an assessment of body size/shape?
• BMI
• Measure Body Circumference (WHR)
• Identify your body’s patterns of fat distribution
What are 6 ways to perform an assessment of body composition?
• Skinfold Measurements
• Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)
• Hydrostatic Weighing
• Air Displacement (BOD POD)
• Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
• Estimates from Circumferences or BMI
Describe LEAN BODY MASS.
body mass that is fat-free (muscle, skin, bone, organs, and body fluids)
What is STORAGE FAT?
body fat that is not essential but does provide energy, insulation and padding
How do you find WAIST-TO-HIP RATIO (WHR)?
waist circumference divided by hip circumference
What is ANDROID?
body shape described as “apple-shaped” with excess body fat distributed primarily on the upper body and trunk
What is GYNOID?
body shape described as “pear shaped” where excess body fat is distributed primarily on the lower body (hips and thighs)
What is a SKINFOLD?
a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat tissue that is measured with calipers to determine the fatness of a specific body area; multiple skinfold measures are combined to estimate total body lean and fat masses
What is a CALIPER?
a handheld and spring-loaded instrument with calibrated jaws and a meter that reads skinfold thickness in millimeters
Define DUAL-ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY (DXA).
a technique using two low-radiation X rays to scan bone and soft tissue (muscle, fat) to determine bone density and to estimate percent body fat
Define HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING.
a technique that uses water to determine total body volume, total body density, and percent body fat; a greater difference between out-of-water and in-water weight indicates more body fat
What is a BOD POD?
an egg-shaped chamber that uses air displacement to determine total body volume, total body density, and percent body fat
What is a BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS (BIA)?
a technique that distinguishes lean and fat mass by measuring the resistance of various body tissues to electrical currents
Define NUTRIENT.
a chemical in food that is crucial for growth and function; includes proteins, carbohydrates (starches and sugars), lipids (fats and oils), vitamins, and minerals
Define ESSENTIAL NUTRIENT.
a nutrient necessary for normal body functioning that must be obtained from food.
What is a calorie?
a measure of the amount of chemical energy that foods provide. One calorie (lowercase) can raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius
What is a kilocalorie?
one thousand calories. Also designated Calories (capitalized). Nutritionists use kcal or C when they refer to specific foods. A medium-sized apple provides 50 Calories.
Identify the (7) main nutrients in food and their roles in the body.
• Protein: building blocks of structure and function
• Carbohydrates: major energy suppliers
• Fiber: speeds the passage of food through the digestive system.
• Fats: concentrated energy storage
• Vitamins: micronutrients that promote growth
• Minerals: elemental micronutrients necessary for vital physiological processes
• Water: most fundamental nutrient
Define PROTEIN.
biological molecule composed of amino acids. Proteins serve as crucial structural and functional compounds in living organisms.
Define ENZYME.
protein that facilitates chemical reactions but is not permanently altered in the process; biological catalyst
Define ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID.
one of 9 of the 20 types of amino acids, or building blocks, that our bodies cannot manufacture and that we must consume in our foods.
Define LEGUME.
fruit or seed of plants of the legume family. Legumes include beans, peas, peanuts, and seeds. Soy products are derived from soy beans, which are legumes
Define CARBOHYDRATE.
member of a class of nutrients containing sugars and starches, which supply most of the energy that sustains normal daily activity
Define SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATE.
carbohydrate made up of ONE OR TWO SUGAR SUBUNITS and that delivers energy in a quickly usable form. Glucose, a monosaccharide, has one sugar subunit. Table sugar, a disaccharide, has two sugar subunits.
Define COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATE.
important energy-storage compound and structural building material in plants and animals. Also called polysaccharides, the complex carbohydrates are made up of LONG CHAINS OF SUGAR MOLECULES and deliver “timed release” energy.
Define FIBER.
indigestible carbohydrates in the diet that speed the passage of partially digested food through the digestive tract. Fiber helps control appetite and body weight by creating a feeling of fullness without adding extra calories.
What is a GLYCEMIC INDEX?
a measurement of the rate at which foods raise levels of glucose in the blood, and in turn, trigger the release of insulin and other blood-sugar regulators.
Define LIPID.
a category of compounds including fats, oils, and waxes that do not dissolve in water
Define FAT.
a lipid such as butter, lard, and bacon grease, all of which are solids at room temperature
Define OIL.
a lipid such as corn and olive oil, which is usually a golden liquid at room temperature
Define TRIGLYCERIDE.
lipid molecule made up of three fatty acid chains or “tails” attached to one glycerol “head” containing a three-carbon backbone; common form of fats in foods and in organisms.
Define FATTY ACID.
the most basic unit of triglycerides
Define SATURATED FAT.
a lipid, usually a solid fat like butter, in which most of the chains of carbon atoms are loaded (or “saturated”) with as MANY HYDROGEN ATOMS as the chain can carry. Saturated chains are straight, allowing them to pack together and act like a solid.
Define UNSATURATED FAT.
a lipid, usually a liquid oil, in which most carbon chains LACK THE MAXIMUM LOAD OF HYDROGEN ATOMS. Unsaturated chains are kinked and can’t pack tightly, thus they can slip past each other and act like liquids.
Define MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACID (MUFA).
lipid whose fatty acid chains have just ONE KINKED (unsaturated) REGION. Olive oil, canola oil, and cashew oil are high in mono-unsaturated fatty acids.
Define POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID (PUFA).
lipid whose fatty acid chains have TWO OR MORE KINKED (unsaturated) REGIONS. Corn oil, safflower oil, and cottonseed oils are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Define TRANS FAT.
an UNSATURATED lipid or oil WITH HYDROGEN ATOMS ADDED to cause more complete saturation and make the oil function as a solid. Margarines and vegetable shortenings are examples of trans fats.
Define ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID.
lipid components, including linolenic acid, EPA, DHA, and linoleic acid, which the body cannot manufacture and which we must obtain in polyunsaturated oils.
Define OMEGA-6 FATTY ACID.
a lipid in a class of lipid components that includes linoleic acid; abundant in polyunsaturated oils such as canola oil, corn oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil. The fatty acids are POLYUNSATURATED and have DOUBLE-BONDED CARBONS at two sites, including one at the SIXTH carbon along the chain.
Define OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID.
a lipid in a class of lipid components that includes linoleic acid, EPA, and DHA; abundant in polyunsaturated oils from flaxseeds, walnuts, and certain fish. Found in lesser amounts in canola and soybean oils. The fatty acids are double-bonded at three sites, including one at the THIRD carbon along the chain.
Define LIPOPROTEIN.
a lipid plus protein transport particle that can move along easily in the bloodstream; carries triglycerides or cholesterol.
Define LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL).
a form of lipoprotein sometimes called “bad cholesterol”. LDL levels rise in response to saturated fats in the diet and can contribute to plaque deposits inside blood vessels.
Define HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN.
a form of lipoprotein sometimes called “good cholesterol”. HDL levels rise in response to polyunsaturated fats and prevent and reduce plaque deposits in the blood vessels.
Define CHOLESTEROL.
a waxy lipid in the steroid class that is an important component of cell membranes and is transported in the blood by carriers called LDL and HDL. Some cholesterol in the blood comes from the diet; most is made in the liver.
Define VITAMIN.
organic compound in foods that we need in tiny amounts to PROMOTE GROWTH and help maintain life and health.
Define MINERAL.
an element such as calcium or sodium that ALLOWS VITAL PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, including nerve transmission, heartbeat, oxygen delivery, and absorption of vitamins.
Define MAJOR MINERAL.
a mineral needed in relatively large amounts, including sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and chloride.
Define TRACE MINERAL.
an element the body needs in very tiny amounts; includes iron, zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, fluoride, and chromium.
What is OSTEOPOROSIS?
a disease of thinning, weakened, porous bones during which too little calcium is deposited or retained in the bones.
What is IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA?
a disease in which the body takes in too little iron and makes too little oxygen-carrying hemoglobin.
What is FOLATE?
a form of vitamin B that is vital for spinal cord development and helps break down homocysteine as the body digests proteins.
Define RDAs (Recommended Daily Allowances).
a listing of the average daily nutrient intake level for a list of vitamins and minerals that meets most people’s daily needs.
Define DVs (Daily Values).
a list of all the important nutrients from two less inclusive government lists- the RDIs (Reference Daily Intakes) and the DRVs (Daily Reference Values). DVs are printed on all nutrition labels.
Define WHOLE FOODS.
dietary items produced and consumed with the minimum of processing, such as refining, adding preservatives, or altering form for quick preparation
Define NUTRIENT-DENSE FOODS.
food or beverage that provides a high level of nutrients and thus maximizes the nutritional value of each meal and snack consumed.
Define ANTIOXIDANT.
compound in foods that helps protect the body against the damaging effects of oxygen derivatives called free-radicals. Includes vitamins C and E and the yellow, red, orange, and green plant pigments beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein.
Describe dietary recommendations for ELITE ATHLETES.
• Extra calories
• Extra water
• Complex carbohydrates 3 to 4 hours prior to event
• Avoid proteins, fats, refined sugars, caffeine, and gas producing foods
• Eat simple and complex carbohydrates after event
Describe dietary recommendations for WOMEN.
Extra
• Calcium
• Iron
• Vitamin C
• Folate
Describe dietary recommendations for CHILDREN.
Extra
• Calcium
• Potassium
• Fiber
• Magnesium
• Vitamin E
Describe dietary recommendations for ADULTS OVER 50.
Extra
• Vitamin B12
• Calcium
• Potassium
• Sodium
• Vitamin D
Describe dietary recommendations for VEGETARIANS.
• Protein
• Vitamin B2
• Vitamin D
• Vitamin B12
• Iron
• Calcium
Define OVERWEIGHT.
an adult having a BMI of 25-29 or body weight more than 10% above recommended levels
Define OBESE.
an adult having a BMI of 30 or more or body weight more than 20% above recommended levels
Define UNDERWEIGHT.
an adult having a BMI below 18.5 or a body weight more than 10% below recommended levels
Define ENERGY BALANCE.
the relationship between the amount of calories consumed in food with the amount of calories expended through metabolism and physical activity.
Define NEGATIVE CALORIC BALANCE.
calories consumed < calories expended
Define POSITIVE CALORIC BALANCE.
calories consumed > calories expended
Define ISOCALORIC BALANCE.
calories consumed = calories expended
Define NON-EXERCISE ACTIVITY.
routine daily activities like standing up and walking around that use energy but are not part of deliberate exercise
Define BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
your baseline rate of energy use, dictated by your body’s collective metabolic activities
Define RESTING METABOLIC RATE.
basal metabolic rate plus the energy expended in digesting food
Define SET POINT.
a preprogrammed weight that your body returns to easily when you gain or lose a few pounds
Define WEIGHT CYCLING.
the pattern of repeatedly losing and gaining weight, from illness or dieting
Define RIGID DIETS.
weight-loss regimens that specify strict rules on calorie consumption, types of foods, and eating patterns
Define FLEXIBLE DIETING.
weight-loss regimens that focus on portion size and make allowances for variations in daily routine, appetite and food availability
Define YO-YO DIETING.
a series of diets followed by eventual weight gain. Yo-yo dieting can lead to weight cycling.
Define DISORDERED EATING.
atypical, abnormal food consumption that diminishes your wellness but is usually neither long-lived nor disruptive to everyday life
Define BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER.
a psychological syndrome characterized by unrealistic and negative self-perceptions focusing on a physical defect such as nose size
Define ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
a persistent, chronic eating disorder characterized by deliberate food restriction and severe, life-threatening weight loss.
Define BULIMIA NERVOSA.
binge eating followed by purging, laxative abuse, or excessive exercise
Define BINGE EATING DISORDER.
variation of bulimia that involves binge eating but usually no purging, laxatives, exercise or fasting