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293 Cards in this Set

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What are the 5 roles of grandparenting?
1. Nurturing
2. family historian
3. teacher and mentor
4. model for mid-life and aging
5. "wise" role
What are Newgarten's 5 styles of grandparenting?
1. Formal
2. Distant Figure
3. Fun Seeker
4. Surrogate Parent
5. Reservoir of "family wisdom"
Why is grandparenting considered a "counter-transition"?
Because our status changes only after the actions of someone else, not by our own actions.
When do Americans typically become grandparents?
40's and 50's
1.Make it clear not your parent
2.Like to spoil you once and awhile
3. help out parents by babysitting
Formal
1. clear not parent
2. like to spoil
3. help parents by babysitting
4. see u only on holidays
5. kindly; but emotionally distant
Distant Figure Type
1. Do things with you just for fun
2. Have a loving relationhips w/ you
3. do not have athority
Fun-Seeker Type (mutal entertainment)
1. Have parental authority
2. Inovlved in descisions that effect you
3. Another Parent
4. spend more time then actual parent
Surrogate Parent Type
1. Teach you special skills or traditions
2. Powerful force
3. Make it clear that they are not your parent
Reservoir of Family Wisdom Type
In relation to the "timing" of grandparenting: what is "off time" late?
Cause us to feel we are missing something
In relation to the "timing" of grandparenting: what is "off time" early?
May cause a refusual to accept role
Do grandparents affect the survival of a grandchild?
While they may not be essential to the survival of children in western culture, they become more important in lower/poverty stricken communities for survival. (grandmothers)
What is Selective Investment?
putting more energy into one grandchild relationship than others - this is actually not so unusual.
Define Simpatia, Personalismo
A family centered value, that emphasises a pleasant demeaner; interpersonal interaction; good natured
Define Personalismo
warm and friendly
Dfine Familismo
Family centered value that is most important; strong identification to nuclear and extended families; also others not blood related, but close to family
3 main characteristics of Familiso
1. loyalty (obligation material/emotional)
2. reciprocity (living close)
3. solidarity (shared responsibility of child)
The effects of Acculturation according to Silverstein?
Multigenerational family more focused on nuclear family; diminishes the values, practices, and language, of younger members; exposure to dominant culture
What happens to grandparent-child relations after divorce?
Paternal grands get decreased contact; Maternal grands may have increased contact
what are the current demographics of elderly? what is a future outlook?
1/7 are over age 65; 1/5 (dominantly female)
What is the most rapidly growing age group?
Over 85 which is dominantly female
What is the economic status of the elderly in the US?
better off financially; AAm more likley to be poor and women living alone
Define senescence
stage of gradual decline as we grow old
Define gerontology
study of the aged, and the process of aging
Define geriatrics
branch of medicine concerned w/ the aged and aging
Define primary aging
gradual, inevitable process of bodily deterioration
Define Secondary Aging
the result of disease, abuse, and disuse
Who are the "young-old"?
65-75
Who are the "very old"
over age 85
Define Functional Age
Function compared to "average" person
Define Maximum Life Expectancy and what is the average for both sexes? What country has the longest life expectancy?
oldest age any individual lives; 77; Japan
Define Useful or active life expectancy
# of years free of debilitating impairment
True or False? Your odds of surpassing the "average" life expectancy increases as you get closer to "old age"
True
What are the 2 theories about why the human body shows signs of age?
1. Aging by design: genetic programming process which holds bodies age according to a normal dev. timetable built into genes
2. Aging by accident: variable rate processes
What is the Hayflick limit?
An aging by design theory that is indicated by the ceasation of cell division once telemere becomes to short (shoe lace ex)
What are two Aging by design possibilities?
1. Endocrine system change: hormone levels decline/receptors less effective
2. changes in the immune system: due to primary and secondary (stress) exposure
3. Programmed Senescence: genes may switch off before age-related losses become evident
What is the most likely cause of death in old age?
Cancer rates; after 85: heart disease
What are normal physical changes that come with adavancing age?
• One subtle change: decrease in "reserve capacity" (the ability to put forth strong effort in times of stress)
• Cross-linking (loss of elasticity)
• Sleep changes
• Strength, dexterity, balance
• Sensitivity to hot and cold
• Visual and hearing changes
• Taste and smell
• Reaction time
What are typical chronic health problems of older people?
• Arthritis
• Hypertension
• Heart disease
• Osteoporosis
• Diabetes
• Respiratory diseases
• Constipation
• Sinusitis
Note: Despite these conditions, the majority of older people still rate their health as "good" or "excellent".
What is the "rate of Living" theory?
An Aging by accident theory that says how fast you live indicates your life expectancy; metabolic influence
What is "wear and Tear" theory? And what type of aging theory is it?
An aging by accidnet theory that states the harder you are on your body the faster it will wear out.
What is Error Catastrophe?
Cell mutation can occur if multiple errors accumulate and repair may not be possible
What are Free Radicals?
Cellular garbage; the byproducts of cellular metabolism; a molecule that's highly reactive and may bind innappropriatly
What are normal changes in the brain with aging?
1. Loss of mass
2. Dendritic connections between neurons tend to disappear as we age
3.Compensatory "sprouting" of new neural connections doesn't stop - it can occur throughout life
4. Decreased blood supply to the brain
what is "plasticity"
ability to adapt and get around problems
What did the Shaie’s Seattle Longitudinal Study imply about cognitive decline?
Decline varies greatly among people and is not usually significant; however, loss of skill was most apparent in unfamiliar, complex tasks, and under stressful situations.
What are some of the factors associated with retaining high cognitive scores in old age?
1.being satisfied with one's accomplishments in midlife
2.being flexible
3.being free of cardiovascular disease or other chronic diseases
4. being wealthier
5. being better-educated
6. being in stable marriages with "smart" spouses.
What preserves cognitive function?
Use of body and mind
What does Engagement theory propose?
people who have an active, engaged life after retirement, show less cognitive decline
What changes in information processing occur w/ old age?
1. selective attention
2. Cannot divide attention as easily
3. Reaction time slows (processing speed)
4. The size of our working memory declines
5. Explicit memory tends to deteriorate, while implicit memory stays largely unchanged
What are two types of Short Term memory?
Sensory (few seconds)+ Working
What are Long term memory types?
1. Procedural/Implicit (not thinking ie ride a bike)
2. Explicit/Conscious Episodic (specific experience or events) and Semantic (general factual knowledge, social customs and language)
Which age group is more likely to be happy with their current life situation?
Older people are more likely to say that they are happy than younger people despite declines and losses, except maybe among the oldest old.
What are approaches to psychological well-being?
1. Feeling Based
2. Function Based
What is function based well being?
1. Purpose in life
2. Personal Growth
3. Positive Relations with Others
4. Autonomy
5. Self-acceptance
6. Environmental Mastery
What is feeling based psychological well-being?
1. Positive affect
2. Absence of negative affect
3. Satisfaction with life
4. Discrete Emotions
What happens to personality with age?
we do not usually see wide changes in personality unless disease such as dimentia is a factor; however we do see a change in cautiousness and vaunerability
Traits linked to higher life satisfaction are:
1. Extroversion
2. Usefulness/competence (conscientiousness)
3. Trust (agreeableness)
4. Low neuroticism
What personality trait is related to a long life?
conscientiousness
What is the homogeneity bias?
we usually choose friends who have very similar background, age, and sex. Older people are often limited to these chioces and do not have the resources to make friends as easily as they once did
What are the challenges to making freindships in old age?
1. Homogeneity bias
2. Friends give unsolicited advice and older people do not like it
3.Cultivating new friendships takes energy
What are the 3 Styles of Making friends?
1. Acquisitive style (easy at making new friends at various times in the lifespan)
2. Discerning style (few friends, but those that are there are quite close, and may be only true friend; but may socialize more widely)
3. Independent style (try not to get very close, but socialize widely; have more difficulty when older)
Why is retirement a fairly recent institution?
and
What 2 Social structural characteristics are needed for large number of people to be able to retire?
1. People typically did not retire; they worked until they were physically not able to.
2. People were fairly poor and needed to work

1. A strong Economy
2. Widespread pension system (SSA)
What factors influenced the Social Security Act of '35?
1. there was a shift from farming toward industrialization
2. People were not expected to live 20-30 yrs after retirement
3. Was designed to be a social insurance program to provide retired workers with a "safety net" or minimal income.
In what ways are people redefining retirement?
1. Average age= 62
2. Not everyone fuly retires and many take on new jobs

3. nearly half of retirees work again or take on new roles
4. housewives never really are able to "retire"
What does employment provide?
1. a way fo structuring our time
2. something to do
3. an identity
4. a context in which we interact with others
5. A sense of participating in a collective effort
What are two myths that were found in the Cornell Retirement Study?
soon after you retire you will get sick and die

you'll be unhappy and regret it if you retire

(most are actually happy, and physical health remains constant)
What are 3 Patterns that retire people structure their time?
1. Family focuesed lifestyle
2. Balanced investment lifestyle(middle ground between other two)
3. Serious leisure lifestyle
What are some of the factors that influence our adjustment to retirement?
1. Economic status
2. Health
3. Personal history with retirement (did we choose to retire or were we forced)
4. Amt. of Planning done
5. Flexibility (able to adjust to change)
6. Reactions of significant others (he's suddenly home alot)
7. Size of our personal social network
What is the longest relationship most will have throughout thier lifetime?
Sibling relationships; Hourglass: childhood and late to middle adulthood
What are the Basic Activities of Daily Living?
Bathing; Eating; dressing; getting into a chair; toileting; walking
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)
Managing finances; shopping for necessities; using telephone; having transpertation; preparing meals; taking medication; housekeeping
What is "aging in place"?
living in own home which is associated with independence and autonomy; people can experienc changes w/o have to change environment; relocating can be stressful
Why is it difficult for people to stay in their own homes as they age?
may be difficult to do household tasks; stirs may be difficult; neighborhood may lead to risk of victimization in urban areas; few transportation options for suburban and rural areas; property taxes tend to increase and income does not
What are the 3 common types of moves?
1. Amenity Move: comfort; may involve seasonal migration
2. Kinship (Compensatory) Migration: usually after difficulty arises in managing own household, and also moving closer to an adult child
3. Institutional Migration: old age homes
When are moves likely?
1. Competence-Environment Press Theory: predicts that moves will occur when the environment press is greater than the individual's competence can manage
2. People tend to move when there has been a change or anticipate a change
3. "push"(out of setting) and "pull" (into new setting) factors
What are the effects of relocation on the individual?
It depends....
On chacteristics of individual
On what happens during relocation
On the new place of residence
What are some of the living arrangements possible in old age?
"social" model vs. "medical" model
1. Congregate housing
2. Retirement communities
3. Assisted living facilities
4. Continuing care retirement facilities
5. Nursing care facilities
What does elder abuse look like?
1.Physical assult
2.Verbal adn psychological
3.Provision of inadequtge living environment, or withholding life necessities or care for someone
4. Theft or misuse of money
5. Misuse or abuse fo medications
6. Violating personal rights

Neglect is the most likely form of elder abuse
Who is the most likely target of elder abuse?
1. Frail and isolated
2. Living in the home of a "caregiver"
3. Female
Who is a likely perpatrator of admistering elder abuse?
1. Family member
2. Adult child
which type of perpetrator of elderly abuse is more likely to be reported?
Adult children
What are situational factors surrounding elder abuse?
Crowding

Financial stress
Why do some people put up with abuse?
1. Abusive contact better than no contact
2. To see grandchildren, or to get some needed care (benefits vs. cost)
3. Spousal abuse may be lonstanding and perceived as "normal"
4. No capacity to stop the abuse/report it
define the legal concept of "Having Capacity"
The ability to understand relevant information and make decisions to meet one's daily needs (court may est. legal gardian if one does not have)
What is Thanatology?
The Study of death and dying
How do we, as American's view adn experience death?
Death has been removed from the everyday experience. We are now exposed to death in a more abstract way, often in context of media entertainment.
What has changed? : in relation to the illnesses/diseases that affect death rates
1. 1900's: infectious disease such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, influenza, enteritis, ext. and often occured in younger people
2. Today: 3/4 of all deaths are people over age 65, adn are due to heart disease, cancer and stroke.
Death has increasingly become:
1. A phenomenon of old age
2. "medicalized" and removed from public view
3. Preceded by a longer warning period
4. a "wall" rather than a "door"
5. removed from the family touch and is taken care of by professionals
What is the Harvest Moon Effect (passover)?
A pattern of death in which death rates decreased right before the holiday, in which older members of the family play an important role: people can time thier death
What are typically the greatest concerns to people who have a terminal illness?
1. Avoiding pointless prolongation of life after the point of enjoying life
2. Avoiding "being a burden"
3. Want adequate pain medicatoin
What is the "fighting spirit" vs. "stoic acceptance"?
Two approaches taken towards life threatening illnesses: those who showed a "fighting spirit" tended to prolong thier impendant death.
What is Terminal Drop?
A pattern associated with death that shows a significant decline in cognitive ability.
What is the Harvest Moon Effect (passover)?
A pattern of death in which death rates decreased right before the holiday, in which older members of the family play an important role: people can time thier death
How do people react to thier own impending death?
Kubler-Ross 5 stages of grief:

1. Shock, disbelief, DENIAL
2. ANGER
3. BARGAINING
4. DEPRESSION
5. ACCEPTANCE (not all reach this stage)

*not descriptive of all people and people studied were dying "off time"; also does not take into account variations in dying trajectory (ups and downs)
Charles Corr's Four tasks for a dying person:
1. Satisfying bodily needs and minimizing physical stress
2. Maximizing psychological security, autonomy, and richness of life
3.Sustaining adn enhancing significant interpersonal attachmetns
4. Identifying, developing and reaffirming sources of spiritual energy, therby fostering hope
What are Hospice Services?
1. Palliative not curative care
2. Appropriate when life expectancy is 6mo or less
3. Costs generally coverd under Medicare and or health care
4. Involves care from a circle of professionals and volunteers
What is an Advanced Directive?
To request or deny certain hospital care by legally signing an advanced directive to voice what care or procedures a patient wants.
Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care?
Legal specification of a person who can speak for you in terms of health care in cases of incapacitation of patient.
What is the literal meaning to Euthanasia?
good dying
What is Passive Euthanasia?
Doing nothign to prevent a natural death from happening
What is "Double Effect" Euthanasia?
pain medication in a dose that could hasten death
What is SUPPORT?
Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatment: it is often hard to predict dying trajectory
Define Bereavement?
loss
Define Grief:
an emotional response to loss
Define Mourning:
behavioral response to loss
What is Anticipatory grief?
that which occurs before the loss
Define Ambiguous loss:
not clearly defined, uncertain, without tangible sign
What are some myths about grief?
-Bereaved people will always be distraught and depressed
-If you dont show a lot of distress early on, you'll have problems later
-Focusing on the loss will always help you work through it
-Mourning should be finished after a year
-Eventually everone will accept the loss, both intellectually and emotionally
What are some of the common patterns of grief?
Shock and disbelief: Immediate crisis (physical depression and sadness)

Preoccupation: intermediate phase (on your mind alot)

Resolution: able to go on with fond memories (2-5years or longer)

*not everyone will follow these patterns
What are some factors that affect the way people feel, and express their grief?
Age (younger is harder)

How a loved one died

Personality characteristics

Degree of social support
What types of people are at risk for having difficulty with the loss of a loved one?
Insecure, anxious and fearful

Have had ambivalent or conflicted relationship w/ deceased

have lost a partner unexpectedly or violently

Lack of social support
How do depression rates respond to widowhood?
The are higher before and spike right after
What is a suttee?
traditional practice of widow throwing herself on husbands funeral fire
What are some points on Funerals and mourning rituals?
-Cultural practices vary widely
-Most cultures have prescribed ways of handling human remains
-Rituals give us somethign predictable adn important to do at a tiem when we're likely to be confused and helpless
-Dispositon of remains in the US is typically done with the assistance of a funeral home
Two theories of social contact across the lifespan are:
Social Convoy Theory: we move through life surrounded by people who stay w/ us and others who come and go
What are the Characteristics of social convoys?
-consist of people who surround us as we move through life
-Provide us with a protective layer of social relations to guide encourage and socialize
-Some are in our "inner ring" while others are less close to us
-Middle aged people often have a large social convoy
-women in particular often have a large Inner ring in thier social convoy
What is socio-emotional selectivity?
This helps explain why people choose to spend time with the people they do

Social interaction w/ other people has three broad goals:

1. We seek information
2. We develop and maintain our sense of self
3. We seek pleasure, comfort, emotional well-being
How do freindships change in Mid-life?
-social networks tend to become smaller and more intimate
-Developmental task of finding a few good friends who provide high quality emotional support
-Often less time for casual friendships than in young adulthood
What events happen in middle-aged gay/lesbian relationships?
-may be first time 'coming out', resulting in a prolonged search for identity
-couple relationships tend to be stronger if not hidden from family and friends, adn if the couple seeks support from others
What can be said about Marital relationships and satisfaction?
Satisfaction tends to follow a U shaped curve; lowest when children are present

During the first 20-24 years of marriage, the longer a couple has been married, the less satisfied they tend to be

Satifaction then tends to rise again and maybe even higher than when began
What is a "refilled nest"?
(cluttered nest or revolving door)
When children come back to live w/ parents: may stress relationships, particularly if it interferes w/ efforts to renew thier intimacy or explore personal intrests
What are intergenerational transfers?
transfer of material goods or general help as support; goes both ways between middle-aged and adult children (not tangible from child)
How do relationships with children fare during middle-age?
-parent/child relationships improve somewhat
-children who were most trusted by thier parents see a greater closeness to parents in early adulthood
-Parents and young adult children differ in the way they describe thier relationships; parents report of it is often more positve
Why is a relationship between the middle-aged and thier older parents a recent possibility?
-100 years ago few people had older parents living

-today, most people enter middle age with two living parents and leave with none
What makes being 'in the middle'the best stage of life?
-earn most of the money
-pay most of the bills, taxes
-get to make many decisions

BUT-you may have responsibilities of generations on either side of you
When do generational relationships work best?
When people involved are healthy and vigorous
Why is it likely that you will be providing care for YOUR elderly relatives?
-they will be living longer
-chronic disease vs. quick infectious disease
-people tend to avoid nursing care "aging in plac"
-Hospitals discharge patients sooner
-family size has decreased, concentrating the care on fewer children
-women are likely to live for a time as a widow, often living alone
What is the Scarcity Theory?
stress of being in the middle:

1. Energy limitations
2. Role conflict and role overload
What is accumulation Theory?
Response to stress of being in the middle:

1. Energy control
2. Benefit form multiple roles
When do caregiving rates peak?
During midlife
What are some consequences of caregiving?
1. increased psycological distress
2. Poorer reported health
3. Reduction of leisure and other social activities
4. May have a negative impact on marriage
What are moderators of the effects of caregiving?
1. Degree of disability of the care recipient
2. Living w/ recipient=more distress
3. Gender: Women may suffer more negatively
4. Spousal care may be more distressing
5. Prior relationship quality
6. Social support reduces burden
7. Good personal skills help: organization and coping skills
What is role salience?
the importance of a role to personal identity
What is Balte's View on wisdom?
Expertise in the "fundamental pragmatics of life" and understandings about life's conduct adn meaning; while related to intelligence, creativity, and personality, it is something seperate; not reserved for old age
Brain illnesses such as schizophrenia and bi-polar disorder tend to be____among the elderly
Less Common
Major depression is____ a feature of normal aging
NOT (but do tend to increase with advancing age, esp. in males)
What are some symtoms of depression?
Sleep disturbances

Appetite disturbances

Low energy

Inability to concentrate

Difficulty making decisions

Excess emotionality
Define dysphoria
feeling sad (older people may see this as normal; also may be difficult to diagnose because some of the symtoms are typical of old age)
What is Balte's View on wisdom?
Expertise in the "fundamental pragmatics of life" and understandings about life's conduct adn meaning; while related to intelligence, creativity, and personality, it is something seperate; not reserved for old age
Brain illnesses such as schizophrenia and bi-polar disorder tend to be____among the elderly
Less Common
Major depression is____ a feature of normal aging
NOT (but do tend to increase with advancing age, esp. in males)
What are some symtoms of depression?
Sleep disturbances

Appetite disturbances

Low energy

Inability to concentrate

Difficulty making decisions

Excess emotionality
Define dysphoria
feeling sad (older people may see this as normal; also may be difficult to diagnose because some of the symtoms are typical of old age)
What is Balte's View on wisdom?
Expertise in the "fundamental pragmatics of life" and understandings about life's conduct adn meaning; while related to intelligence, creativity, and personality, it is something seperate; not reserved for old age
Brain illnesses such as schizophrenia and bi-polar disorder tend to be____among the elderly
Less Common
Major depression is____ a feature of normal aging
NOT (but do tend to increase with advancing age, esp. in males)
What are some symtoms of depression?
Sleep disturbances

Appetite disturbances

Low energy

Inability to concentrate

Difficulty making decisions

Excess emotionality
Define dysphoria
feeling sad (older people may see this as normal; also may be difficult to diagnose because some of the symtoms are typical of old age)
What factors may contribute to an increase in depressive symtoms in old age?
-Declining Neurotransitter levels
-Certain medication regimens
-Social factors: losses of friends and family
-loss of feeling of control over environment
Some predictors of depression in old age are:
1. an earlier episode
2. poor health
3. experienced a loss event
4. low social support
What is Balte's View on wisdom?
Expertise in the "fundamental pragmatics of life" and understandings about life's conduct adn meaning; while related to intelligence, creativity, and personality, it is something seperate; not reserved for old age
Brain illnesses such as schizophrenia and bi-polar disorder tend to be____among the elderly
Less Common
Major depression is____ a feature of normal aging
NOT (but do tend to increase with advancing age, esp. in males)
What are some symtoms of depression?
Sleep disturbances

Appetite disturbances

Low energy

Inability to concentrate

Difficulty making decisions

Excess emotionality
Define dysphoria
feeling sad (older people may see this as normal; also may be difficult to diagnose because some of the symtoms are typical of old age)
How can depresseion be treated?
1. Medication interactions
2. "Talk" therapies
(failure to treat increases suicide risk, esp. w/ men)
What are factors that contribute to increase in depressive symptoms in old age?
-Declining neurotransmitter levels
-medication regimins
-social factors: losses
-loss of control
Some predictors of Depression in Old age include:
-earlier episode
-poor health
-experienced a loss event
-low social support
Define Dementia
the general term for physiologically caused cognitive and behavioral decline sufficient to affect daily life.

(increases as we get older, however if not a factor after 90, then it is probable that dimentia will not develop)
What is pseudo-dementia?
taking the wrong medications can cause mental confusion and may feel like dimentia
What is secondary dementia?
Not treatable; typically from damage associated with taking certain medications
What does subcortical damage?
deeper damage to the brain as noted in Huntintons's and Parkinson's disease
Korsakoff's disease is:
an effect of alcoholism that may be confused for dimentia
multi-infarct dementia (stroke):
lack of blood to the brain

-declines show a more discontinuous onset: a stepwise progression
-may co-exist w/ Alzheimer's
-Certain environmetnal and lifestyle influences make strokes more likely
-before 75 is more common in males
What are some facts about Alzhemier's Disease?
A disease of old age, but one early form of it occurs in late middle age

average age of first symptom: 75

Course is progressive

Time from first appearance to death highly variable 3-20
What are symptoms of Alzheimers?
Forgets entire experiences

Rarely remembers later

Gradually unable to follow spoken/written directions

Gradually unable to use notes as reminders
Describe the 7-stage model of Alzheimer's Disease
1. Normal cognition, no complaints or evidence of problem
2. very mild decline: forgetting MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: may not become Alzheimer's
3. more noticable memory problems esp with recent memory; may or may not be able to diagnose at this stage
4. moderate cognitive decline: mild Alzheimers; subdued or withdrawn and have trouble w complex tasks
5. mid stage Alzheimers: increasing disorientation; mood and behavior change
6. Individual largely unaware of recent events, family and surroundings; can wander off and get lost
7. "severe" or late stage: physical skills become affected (motor skills, ect)
Why is early diagnosis of Alzheimer's beneficial?
1. time to make choices to maximize quality of life
2. Better change of benefitting from treatment
What test is used to determine Alzheimers?
no singel test, a multi-faceted approach is used to rule out other cuases for dementia and pinpoint the pattern of memory and reasoning problems
Why is testing for Mild Cognitive Impairment important?
b/c may actually be symptoms of normal aging
Upon autopsy what can be seen in an Alzheimer's patients brain?
amyloid plaques

tangles of twisted protein threads called neurofibrillary tangles
What is the Amyloid hypothesis?
Amyloid precurser protein (APP) gets procesed inappropriatly into a fragmetn called Beta Amyloid, which aggregates into "clumps" called plaques which distrupt and distroy nerve cell function.
What is Tau theory?
suggests that the cause of Alzheimer's disease may be a deformed Tau protein
Inflammation is a:
possible "starter" process of Alzheimer's disease: it has been observed that people takign anti-inflammatory drugs to treat conditions such as arthritis have a lower-than-expected incidence
Alzheimer's disease risk incrases with:
history of head injury

history of stroke or cerebral-vascular disease

(exercising body and mind seems to help delay or even prevent the disorder)
How does Genetic Endowment play a role in Alzheimer's disease?
ApoE gene on chromosome 19: codes for a protein involved in cholesterol transport, vinding to amyloid

The allele ApoE-4 predicts late onset

ApoE-3 allele seems to be protective

Other genes on chromosomes 1, 14, and 21 are related to various forms of the disease
What environmetal factors play a role in Alzheimer's?
Reduced risk: Greater edu; Cognitive stimulating activity; use of NSAIDS or anit-oxidants

Risk: high blood pressure/high cholesterol; storke/head injuries; brain inflammation; infection; folic acid deficiency; smoking; decreased social activity
What treatments can be used for Alzheimers?
1. Cholinesterase inhibitors such as Aricept and Cognex in early stages
2. Mematine-works on NMDA receptors, and can be used in middle and later stages
3. Other medication to reduce agitaiton and imporve sleep
4. Vitamin E may slow disease by 7 mo
5. Ginko Biloba may help but will not cure
What is the life course perspective on Cojugal bereavement?
it may be regarded as an important life transition in adulthood, which leads to tremendoous change and exerts marked susequent influences on later development

lives are lived interconnected with a network of other lives
Role-identity theory
provide the individual with a sense fo who they are and how to behave; the absense of social role-identities shoudl be associated with negative health outcomes
Overall Role-identity theory and conjugal berevement show researchers that widowhood has a ______
negative effect on health
What is termed Normal Grief?
this is a self limited process. "grief work", in which people deal with pain adn release the lost person, and readjust to the world without them
What is the psychosocial stage process of grief?
Initial stage: Numbness
Second stage: searching and pining
Third Stage: Despair; alterations must be made
Final Stage: recovery; new roels and relationships are tried out
What is Complicated grief?
this is not a self-solvable process; visual image of deceased, anger, guilt are persistent for years
What did Zisook and Shuchter find about depression in thier study of widowed individuals?
Thier depression levels were significantly higher than those of the married comparison group but tended to decrease over a time period of 24 months
Define Loneliness; Emotional Loneliness; and Social loneliness
1. a feeling of incongruity due to lack of intimacy, contacts or support in social relationships
2. appears in the absence of a close emotional attachment and can only be remedied by the integration fo another emotional attachment or reintegration of the one lost
3. Associated with the absence of engagement in social network
Bereved individuals often experience personal growth after their loss which is often reflected in:
1. increased independence
2. increased self-esteem
3. learning new skills
4. engaging in new interests
What does Security Attachement theory indicate about depression in the widowed?
Those who formed an early secure attachment had less distress and show better adjustment to depression over widows with anxious attachment
How does internal control effect depression rates among the widowed?
Those who had better internal control dealt better with thier loss
How does gender affect the experience of the widowed?
Overall there are no consistant finding regarding gender differences in association between bereavement and mental well-being
What is Religiosity?
Religion was thought to influence bereavemetn outcomes through to mechanisms:

1. religion may provide a belief system that enables ind. to deal with crises
2. participationmay be associated with integration into a social network
Why are males more likely to remarry after being widowed?
1. their pool of eligibles is larger
2. adjusting to living alone may be harder for them
3. they tend to have fewer intimate friendships outside of marriage, and have less social support
What is Robust aging?
1. Productive activity
2. Frequency of physical excercise
3. absence of cognitive impairment
4. Freedom from depression
What is disengagement theory?
you've earned the right to slow down and withdraw from things you're tired of doing
What does Continuity Theory indicate about optimal aging?
people need to maintain a connection between past and present a balance between continuity and change
What is Productivity in old age?
1. Volunteer work formal or informal
2. Paid work
3. Can include household labor and caregiving
What is Selective Optimization with Compensation?
Selection: we select areas which we want to preserve

Optimization: we practice these and apply new technologies as needed

Compensation: for loss of certain things; adjustments
What is Social Breakdown/Reconstruction theory?
effects of aging are made worse by society's negative views and may even begin to conform to these negative stereotypes.
What is marital capital?
financial and emotional benefits of marriage that become difficult to give up
What is filial maturity?
when middle aged children learn to accept and to meet thier parents dependency needs
WHat is caregiver burnout
A physical, emotional and mental exhaustion that affects adults who care for aged relatives
What is a skip generation family?
When a grandparent is taking care of a child's child; aslo termed KINSHIP CARE
What is ageism
prejudice or discrimination based on age
Define Longevity
how long a person actually lives
define life span
the longest period that members of our species can live
What does autoimmune theory suggest?
That an aging immune system can become confused adn release antibodies taht attack the body's own cells
What are survival curves?
percentages of people or animals who live to various ages
What are cataracts?
1/2 of people 65 develop cloudey or opaque areas in the lens of the eye that eventually cause blurred vision
What is age-related Macular degeneration?
Condition in which the center fo the retina gradually loses its ability to discern fine details; leading cuase of irreversible visual impairment in older adults
What is glaucoma?
Irreversible damage to the optic nerve caused by increased pressure in the eye
What is the most important fact in maintaining sexal function?
consistant sexual activity over the years
What is osteoarthritis?
(degenerative joint disorder) affects weight-bering joints such as the knees and hips
What is rheumatoid arthritis?
a disease that distroys joint tissues
What is periodontitis
gum disease
What is Parkinson's Disease?
the second most common form of neurological degeneration, is characterized by tremor, stiffness, slowed movement, adn unstable posture
What are Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors?
Anti-depressants such as Prozac
What is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale?
Intelligence test for adults, which yields verbal adn performance scores as well as a combinded score
What is termed the classic aging pattern?
On the WAIS performance scales drop with age but verbal scalesfall only slightly and very gradually
What is Baltes dual-process model?
AND
Describe what the Mechanics and Pragmatics of intelligence are
a model which seeks to identify and measure aspects of intelligence tha tmay continue to advance as well as areas expected to deteriorate

Mechanics: independant information processing and problem solving; physiologically based (often declines with age)

Pragmatics: practical thinking, application of knowledge and skills, specialized expertice, professional productivity, and wisdom; tends to grow with age
Describe what kinds of tasks are associated with the working memory?
Rehersal: repitition (shows little decline w/ age)

Reorganization and Elaboration: (decline with age)
What is priming?
Study method that increase in ease of doing a task or remembering information as a result of a previous encounter with the task or information
What are the three procedural methods for memory?
Encoding
Storage
Retrieval
How does the brain's hippocampus relate to age related cognitive decline ?
It loses 20% of its initial nerve cells and is critical to the ability to store new information
How does the corpus collosum affect cognition in old age?
atrophy may cause sensorymotor cordination between the brains hemispheres difficult
What is failure of source monitoring?
When decline appears in the prefrontal cortex common memory problems such as remembering wehre a memory originated can occur
What is Metamemory in Adulthood (MIA)
Questionaire designed to measure various aspects of adults metamemory, including beliefs about their own memory and the selection and use of strategies for remembering
Define Metamemory
belief or knowledge about how memory works
What are mneumonics?
strategies for remembering
Can wisdom be defined acuratly?
widom seems to be a highly individual thing, not subject to generalization about normative dev. and not gender related. Such qualities as openness to experience, creativity, reflective thinking, adn sophiticated moreal resoning seem to contribute to it.
What is Lifelong learning?
Organized sustained study by adults of all ages
Describe Erikson's stage of ego identity versus despair
older adultsneed to evaluate, sum up and accept their lives so as to accept the approach of death, otherwise people are left with despair realizing that there is no time left to pursue other roads
Define coping
adaptive thinking or behavior aimed at reducing or relieving stress that arises from harmful, threatening, or challenging conditions
What makes for positive mental health in late life, according to George Vaillant?
mature adaptive defenses in coping with problems in situations they are powerless to change; this is unconscious or intuitive
What is the Cognitive-appraisal model
People conciously choose coping strategies on the basis of the way they perceive and analyze a situation that taxes thier resources
Coping strategies may be either Problem-focused or Emotion focused. Describe each.
Problem: in the cognitive appraisal model, coping strategy directed toward eliminating, managing or improving a stressful situation

Emotion: strategy directed toward managing the emotional response to a stressful situationso as to lessen its physical or psychological impact; sometimes called palliative coping
What are the characteristics of long-term marriages in late life, and what do divorce, remarriage adn widowhood have at this time?
More likely satisfyed with thier marriages

Divorce at this age is rare

Remarriage at this age proves people to be more trusting, accepting, and less likely to share feelings

Women are more likely to live alone and be widowed
How do unmarried older people fare in late life?
They are usually more satisfyed with single life and less likely to be lonely
What is the role of great-grandparent compared to grandparent
usually a lesser role
How do attitudes and customs concerning death differ across culture?
they are usually based on the society's view of the nature and consequence of death. Some modern customs ahve evolved from ancient beliefs
There is now an upsurge of interest in understanding and dealing realistically and compassionatley with death. This is part of what is known as the ______ revolution.
Mortality
What have some people described as a "near death" experience
bright lights, out of body experience or mystical encounters.

may result from physiological changes that accompany the process of dying or mental response to the threat of death.
How can people get over the fear of death?
the more meaning and purpose people find in their lives the less they tend to fear it. Life review is another way(process of evaluating and finding the significance of his or her own life)
What are Normative Changes in adolescence?
Dev. is discontinuous, qualitative (different and new) physical changes, including reproductive maturity

Ability to think abstractly, and use a more "scientific" style of reasoning. (Piaget's formal thinking)

Limitations and implication for social life
Emotionally charged issues are tough
the 'personal fable' (no one understands)
the 'imaginary audience'

The search for identity, Erik Erikson's theory; often seek out peer groups to help define this by testing the self concept

School and work are influential contexts w/ more peer contact

the quest for autonomy can bring conflict with family; usually strong but emotional

Adolescent and adults are moving in opp. directions and can provoke jealousy in the middle aged adult
Normative Changes in Young Adulthood
Physical strength, coordination, and health reaches a peak

Health practices influence the course of later life

by mid 30's, Illness replaces trauma as the most liekly cause of death

Thought becomes more flexible adn subjective: post-formal reasoning

Decisions are made about intimate relationships; most people marry and become parents

Career choices are made and re-made

Work and family influence each other and both influence the course of our own life
Normative changes in Middle age (40-60+)
Some deterioration of physical strength and stamina is seen

Chronic heath problems may become more evident

Women experience menopause

Cognitive abilites remain high-esp. wisdom, expertise and practical problem solving

Very gradual slowing of fluid intelligence while crystallized intelligence continues to improve, performance on complex tasks remains steady

Sense of identity continues to develope (look inward)

Family responsibilities may be stressful

Launching children leaves the "nest" empty but it may not always stay that way

Views of career shift from outward ambition, toward inner satisfaction. Career changes

Turn inward and focus on time left

Activities show generativity are common (leaving something of value)
Normative Changes in Later Adulthood 65+
Most people are healthy, active and not living in institutional settings, althought chronic ailments are common

Most people tend to be very happy and mentally alert, do not see sign of Dementia in 60's and 70's

When you test adn retest people, they may improve and those left in a study may be a healthier than normal group

Processing speed and episodic memeory show measurable declines, but these dont debilitate most people

Retirement from the labor force, but most continue to be productive

Changes in living arangements may be necessary, but most people prefer to age in place

little predictable age-linked change in personality is seen

Older people tend to have a broader range of coping skills which equips them to deal with loss

"life review" phsychosocial task of "integrity vs. Despair"
Key Principles of Baltes Life Span are?
Developement is lifelong

Multi-dimentional; it involves both gains and losses

The relative influences of biology and culture shift across the lifespan
Age Graded Events: very influencial very early in life (happen to most people at about the same time)
History Graded Event: Cohort of people go through similar events (Adolescence and young adulthood)

Development involves a changing allocation of resources

Developement is modifiable; it shows plasticity

Developement is influenced by historical and cultural context
What is Imprinting?
An instinctive and irreversible tie to the mother
Difference between Critial period and Sensitive period
Critical: event has specific influence

Sensitive: individual is most responsive to certain events
What is the differnce between a theory and a hypothesis?
theory is a group of concepts or statements that support the same idea

hypothesis is a general explanation that can be tested
what is a mechanistic model?
people are machines that react to environmetal input
What is the Organistic model?
Model that views development as internally initiated by an active organism and as occuring in a sequence of qualitativly different stages
What is the Psychoanalytic Perspective?
View of dev. as shaped by unconscious forces
What is psychosexual dev.?
In Freudian theory, an unvarying sequence of stages of personality dev. during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, in which gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus and then to the genitals
What is psychosocial dev.?
Erikson's theory, the socially and culturally influenced process of dev. of the ego or self
What is Learning theory?
View of dev. that holds that when changes in behaviro result from experience or adaptation to the environment
What is behaviorism?
Learning theory that emphasisez the predictable role of environment in causing obervable behaviro
What is Classical conditioning?
Learning based on ass. of a stimulus with another simuli to elicit a response
Operant Conditioning
learning based on reinforcement or punishment
What is Social learning theory?
behaviros are learned by observing and imitating models
Cognitive Perspective
View that thought processes are central to dev.
Organization
Piagets term for integration of knowledge into systems
schemes
Piaget's term for orgaized patterns of behavior used in different situations
Assimilation
incorp. new information into existing structure
Accomodation
change in structure to include new information
Information processing approach
Approach to the study of cognitive dev. by observign and analyzing the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information
Social cognitive neuroscience
an emerging interdisciplinary field that draws on cognitive neuroscience, information processing and social psychology
Cognitive neuroscience approach
Approach to the study of cognitive dev. that links brain processes with cognitive ones
Ethology
study of distinctive adaptive behaviors of species of animals that have evolved to increase survival fo the species
sociobiological perspective
view of de. that focuses on biological bases of social behavior
Evolutionary psychology
Application of Darwins principles of natural selection and survival of the fittest to individual behavior
contextual perspective
view of dev. that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context
What is sociocultural theory
Zone of Proximal Dev.?
Scaffolding?
Vygotsky's thoery of how contextual factors affect child dev. (shared activities help child internalize their societies ways)

difference between waht a child can do alone and with help

Temp support to help a child master a task
Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological theory:

microsystem

mesosystem

exosystem

macrosystem

Chronosystem
setting for child to interact w/ others daily

linkages between two or more microsystems

linkags between two ro more settings one of which does not contain the child

term for societys culture patterns

effects of time on other dev. systems
What are the steps fo the scientific method?
Identifying a problem

Hypothesis

collect data

analyze data

publicize findings
What are operational definitions
stated soley in tems fo the operations or precedures used to produce or measure a phenomenon
What is individual choice?
Individual choice is the decision of what to do that necessarily involves the decision of what not to do. This is the core of economics.
What are the 4 underlying principles of Individual choice?
1. Resources are scarce
2. The real cost of something is what you must give up to get it
3. "how much"? is a decision @ the margin
4. People usually exploit opportunity to make them better off
What types of resorces can become scarce?
Time and money
What is the meaning of scarcity?
When a the quantitiy of a resource isnt large enough to satisfy all productive uses it is considered scarce.
What is individual choice?
Individual choice is the decision of what to do that necessarily involves the decision of what not to do. This is the core of economics.
What are the 4 underlying principles of Individual choice?
1. Resources are scarce
2. The real cost of something is what you must give up to get it
3. "how much"? is a decision @ the margin
4. People usually exploit opportunity to make them better off
What types of resorces can become scarce?
Time and money
What is the meaning of scarcity?
When a the quantitiy of a resource isnt large enough to satisfy all productive uses it is considered scarce.
What is individual choice?
Individual choice is the decision of what to do that necessarily involves the decision of what not to do. This is the core of economics.
What are the 4 underlying principles of Individual choice?
1. Resources are scarce
2. The real cost of something is what you must give up to get it
3. "how much"? is a decision @ the margin
4. People usually exploit opportunity to make them better off
What types of resorces can become scarce?
Time and money
What is the meaning of scarcity?
When a the quantitiy of a resource isnt large enough to satisfy all productive uses it is considered scarce.
What is individual choice?
Individual choice is the decision of what to do that necessarily involves the decision of what not to do. This is the core of economics.
What are the 4 underlying principles of Individual choice?
1. Resources are scarce
2. The real cost of something is what you must give up to get it
3. "how much"? is a decision @ the margin
4. People usually exploit opportunity to make them better off
What types of resorces can become scarce?
Time and money
What is the meaning of scarcity?
When a the quantitiy of a resource isnt large enough to satisfy all productive uses it is considered scarce.