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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abnormal condition
to crush
end-stage renal disease
measure of acidity/alkalinity of a substance
the anatomical and functional unit of the kidney, consisting of the renal corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tubule, the descending and ascending limbs of the loop of Henle, the distal convoluted tubule, and the collecting tubule – about 1 million of these in each kidney
the region between the thighs, bounded in the male by the scrotum and anus and in the female by the vulva and anus.
polycystic kidneys
an heritable disorders marked by cysts scattered throughout both kidneys
the thick, whitish secretion of the reproductive organs in the male, consisting of sperm, secretions from the prostate, seminal vesicles, and various other glands; epithelial cells; and minor constituents
to eliminate urine from the body in a normal manner
developmental anomaly consisting of absence of the upper wall of the urethra, with various degrees of severity; it occurs in both sexes but is more common in males, with the urethral opening somewhere on the dorsum of the penis, manifested as a groove or cleft without a covering.
needing to urinate many times during the day
presence of glucose in the urine
difficulty in starting a urinary stream
kidney stones
a condition in which one or more stones are present in the pelvis or calyces of the kidney or in the ureter
narrowness of the opening of the foreskin, preventing its being drawn back over the tip of the penis
renal failure
gradual and progressive loss of the ability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes
almost always transmitted by sexual contact with an infected person. The bacterium spreads from the initial ulcer (sore) of an infected person to the skin or mucous membranes (linings) of the genital area, mouth, or anus of an uninfected sexual partner. It also can pass through broken skin on other parts of the body
venereal warts
caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world. More than 100 different types of HPV exist, most of which are harmless. About 30 types are spread through sexual contact. Some types of HPV cause genital warts—single or multiple bumps that appear in the genital areas of men and women including the vagina, cervix, vulva (area outside of the vagina), penis, and rectum. Many people infected with HPV have no symptoms.
Venereal warts are the most easily recognized sign of genital HPV infection. Many people, however, have a genital HPV infection without genital warts.
a curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These bacteria can infect the genital tract, mouth, and rectum of both men and women.
In women, the opening to the uterus, the cervix, is the first place of infection. The disease can spread into the uterus and fallopian tubes, resulting in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The bacteria are carried in semen and vaginal fluids and cause a discharge. Symptoms usually appear within 2 to 10 days after sexual contact with an infected partner. For women, the early symptoms of gonorrhea often are mild. A small number of people may be infected for several months without showing symptoms.
When women have symptoms, the first ones may include
Bleeding associated with vaginal intercourse
Painful or burning sensations when urinating
Yellow or bloody vaginal discharge
More advanced symptoms, which may indicate development of PID, include cramps and pain, bleeding between menstrual periods, vomiting, or fever.
Men have symptoms more often than women, including
White, yellow, or green pus from the penis with pain
Burning sensations during urination that may be severe
Swollen testicles
Symptoms of rectal infection include discharge, anal itching, and occasional painful bowel movements with fresh blood in the feces. Symptoms typically appear 2 to 5 days after infection but could appear as long as 30 days.
the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman’s reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur “silently” before a woman ever recognizes a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man.
Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States
Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth.
Any sexually active person can be infected with chlamydia. The greater the number of sex partners, the greater the risk of infection. Because the cervix (opening to the uterus) of teenage girls and young women is not fully matured, they are at particularly high risk for infection if sexually active. Since chlamydia can be transmitted by oral or anal sex, men who have sex with men are also at risk for chlamydial infection.
Chlamydia is known as a “silent” disease because about three quarters of infected women and about half of infected men have no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure.
In women, the bacteria initially infect the cervix and the urethra (urine canal). Women who have symptoms might have an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating. When the infection spreads from the cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus), some women still have no signs or symptoms; others have lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods. Chlamydial infection of the cervix can spread to the rectum.
Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Men might also have burning and itching around the opening of the penis. Pain and swelling in the testicles are uncommon.
Men or women who have receptive anal intercourse may acquire chlamydial infection in the rectum, which can cause rectal pain, discharge, or bleeding. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner.
the vagina is the most common site of infection in women, and the urethra (urine canal) is the most common site of infection in men. The parasite is sexually transmitted through penis-to-vagina intercourse or vulva-to-vulva (the genital area outside the vagina) contact with an infected partner. Women can acquire the disease from infected men or women, but men usually contract it only from infected women.
Most men with trichomoniasis do not have signs or symptoms; however, some men may temporarily have an irritation inside the penis, mild discharge, or slight burning after urination or ejaculation.
Some women have signs or symptoms of infection which include a frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor. The infection also may cause discomfort during intercourse and urination, as well as irritation and itching of the female genital area. In rare cases, lower abdominal pain can occur. Symptoms usually appear in women within 5 to 28 days of exposure.
The genital inflammation caused by trichomoniasis can increase a woman’s susceptibility to HIV infection if she is exposed to the virus. Having trichomoniasis may increase the chance that an HIV-infected woman passes HIV to her sex partner(s).
cytomegalovirus infections
CMV is a member of the herpesvirus group Transmission of CMV occurs from person to person. Infection requires close, intimate contact with a person excreting the virus in their saliva, urine, or other bodily fluids. CMV can be sexually transmitted and can also be transmitted via breast milk, transplanted organs, and rarely from blood transfusions. Simple hand washing with soap and water is effective in removing the virus from the hands.
sudden, compelling urge to urinate, accompanied by discomfort in the bladder
urinary tract infection
inflammation of the urinary bladder or urethra. In most cases, caused by a bacterial infection
blood urea nitrogen
The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is a somewhat routine test used primarily to evaluate kidney function. Most renal disease affects urea excretion so that BUN levels increase in the blood. Patients with dehydration or bleeding into the stomach and/or intestines may also have abnormal BUN levels. Numerous drugs also affect BUN by competing with it for elimination by the kidneys.
kidneys, ureters and bladder x-ray
used to detect kidney stones and to diagnose some gastrointestinal disorders
Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) tests
a blood test for syphilis (VDRL stands for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) that detects an antibody that is present in the bloodstream when a patient has syphilis. The test is done on a sample of cerebrospinal fluid
kidney transplant
insertion of a kidney from a donor to take over the function of failed kidneys. Of note is that the native, diseased kidneys are not removed and the transplanted kidney is placed in the lower abdomen, close to the bladder on either the right or left side.
excision of a kidney or part of a kidney
incision into a testis, such as for drainage
creatinine clearance
test compares the level of creatinine in urine with the creatinine level in the blood, usually based on measurements of a 24-hour urine sample and a blood sample drawn at the end of the 24-hour period. Because creatinine is found in stable plasma concentrations, is freely filtered and not reabsorbed, and is minimally secreted by the kidneys, creatinine clearance is used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The GFR in turn is the standard by which kidney function is assessed