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229 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a compound?
Two or more elements (atoms) combined together)
What is a salt?
Any Metal + non metal
What is a non metal + non metal called?
Non salt?
What do organic compounds usually contain?
Carbon Atoms
What states can a gas be in?
Liquid, Compressed Cryogenic
What two columns are typically known for being flammable hazards?
Column #1 and #2 and they're also most reactive
What does the prefix meth mean in regards to organic compounds?
One
What does the prefix "eth" mean in regards to organic compounds?
Two
What does the prefix "prop" mean in regards to organic compounds?
Three
What does the prefix "but" mean in regards to organic compounds?
Four
What does the prefix "pent" mean in regards to organic compounds?
five
What does the prefix "hex" mean in regards to organic compounds?
six
What does the prefix "hept" mean in regards to organic compounds?
seven
What does the prefix "octane" mean in regards to organic compounds?
eight
In regards to organic compounds What's the prefix for one?
meth
In regards to organic compounds What's the prefix for two?
eth
In regards to organic compounds What's the prefix for three?
prop
In regards to organic compounds What's the prefix for four?
but
In regards to organic compounds What's the prefix for five?
pent
In regards to organic compounds What's the prefix for six?
hex
In regards to organic compounds What's the prefix for seven?
hept
In regards to organic compounds What's the prefix for six?
Octane
What're the three states of matter?
Solid, Liquid, Gas
What is the definition of matter?
Anything that takes up space and has weight
What is the definition of chemistry?
The Science of matter, energy and reactions
What's a second definition of chemistry?
The study of the conversion of one form of energy to another
What is homogeneous mixture?
It's when all items are equally distributed (ex: sugar in water)
What is a pure substance?
The homogenous sample that has identical chemical and physical properties
What is a compound?
A compound is made of multiple elements chemically bonded in a molecule.
What is a physical property?
It's the characteristics that do not involve a change in chemical identity.
What is a chemical property?
It describes conditions present when a chemical change is likely to occur or is already taking place.
What is a chemical reaction?
It's energy being absorbed or released
What is an exothermic reaction?
It's the release of heat
What is an endothermic reaction?
It's when it takes in heat
What is a catalyst?
It's compounds that affect the reaction rate
What is an inhibitor?
It's a chemical compound (usually organic) that either retards the rate of a chemical reaction or prevents it from occurring.
Are metals reducers or oxidizers?
Reducers
Are non metals reducers or oxidizers?
oxidizers
Where are protons located?
Nucleus
What is the charge of the protons?
positive
What is the atomic mass of a proton?
One
What is the location of the neutrons?
Nucleus
What is the charge of the neutrons?
0 or neutral
What is the atomic mass of a neutrons?
1
What is the location of the electrons?
Nucleus
What is the charge of the electrons?
-1
What is the atomic mass of a electrons?
0
When there is a electrical charge to a component what do you call it?
An ion?
What are the two types of ions?
Cations and ions?
What is an anion?
Gain one or more electrons and become negatively charged (Ex: Cl
What is a cation?
Atoms that lose one or more electrons and become positively charged as a result (Ex: Na)
What're the four families?
Alkali metals, Alkaline earths, Halogens, Noble Gases
What're the 4 types of bonds?
Ionic, covalent, resonant, metallic
What is an ionic bond?
Transferring of electrons between a metal and nonmetal.
What is Covalent?
It's the sharing of electrons between two nonmetal elements
What is a Resonant bond?
It's formed by the sharing of electrons between multiple nonmetal elements.
What is a metallic bond?
It's the sharing of the outer shell electrons in a delocalized manner
What're the six types of salts?
Binary
Metal Oxide
Metal Hydroxide
Metal Cyanide
Metal Peroxide
Metal Oxysalt
What elements react to water in regards to salts?
Nitrates, Carbides, Hydrides, Phosphides
How do you remember NCHP?
"NO CHP"
How do they name inorganic ionic compounds?
They'll be named cation and anion and then have ide, ite, or ate.
What other 6 terms are similar to metals?
Metals
Cations
Fuels
Reducers
Left side of the table
electropositive
What 5 terms are similar to nonmetals?
Nonmetals
Anions
Oxidizers
Electronegative
Right side of the table
What is the process of changing a solid to a liquid?
Melting
What is the process of changing a liquid to a solid?
Freezing
What is the process of changing a liquid to a gas?
Vaporization
What is the process of changing a gas to liquid?
Condensation
What is the process of changing a solid to gas?
Sublimation
What is the process of changing a gas to a solid?
Deposition
What is deposition?
It's changing a gas to a solid
What is sublimation?
Changing solid to gas
What is condensation?
Changing a gas to a liquid
What is Vaporization?
It's the change of a liquid to a gas
What is the physical change for freezing?
liquid to solid
What is the physical change for melting?
solid to liquid
How is the amount of energy it takes for a substance to undergo a physical change measured?
Joules/gram
What're three examples of exothermic reaction?
Combustion, oxidation and acid/base reactions
Is an inhibitor usually organic or inorganic?
an inhibitor is usually organic and it retards the rate of the chemical reaction or prevents it from occuring.
Without looking what is group 1?
Alkali metals
Without looking what is group 2?
Alkaline Earth
Without looking what is group 17?
Halogens
Without looking what is group 18?
Noble Gases
What group is halogens?
17
What is group is noble gases in?
18
What are the chemical properties of group 1?
Extremely reactive, burn, water reactive
What are the chemical properties of group 2?
slightly less than group 1 but still reactive, burns and water reactive
What are the chemical properties of group 17?
Extremely reactive, toxic, nonflammable oxidizers
What are the chemical properties of group 18?
Inert, asphyxiants, non reactive
How do you know if in elements atoms is radioactive or not?
It's when they have an excess or deficiency of neutrons in the nucleus
What're the two main categories into which elements are divided?
Metals and non metals
How can you distinguish between metals and non metals when looking at the periodic table?
Metals are on the left and nonmetals are on the right.
Elements are grouped vertically in families based on a particular characteristic? What is that characteristic?
# of electrons in the outershell.
What clues might indicate a radioactive atom?
the # of neutrons
What is the maximum number of electrons that can be found in the outer shell?
8
What is the atomic mass of an electron
Almost 0
What is the atomic mass of a neutron?
1
What is the atomic mass of a proton?
1
Where is the location of the electrons?
it's in the orbit/shells
Where is the location of the neutrons?
Nucleus
Where is the location of the protons?
Nucleus
What is the charge of the proton?
positive 1
What is the charge of a neutron?
Neutral
What is the charge of an electron?
negative 1
Are metal atoms electron donors or acceptors?
They're donors, they will lose some electrons from their outer shell.
Are nonmetal atoms electron donors or acceptors?
They're acceptors. they achieve to have a full outer shell.
What're reducing agents commonly called?
Fuels
What are oxidizers in regards to electro charges?
They're electronegative
What're ionic bonds?
They're typically the transfer of electrons between a metal and a non metal.
Do metals donate or accept electrons?
They donate electrons
Do nonmetals donate or accept electrons?
They accept electrons
Are oxidizers typically electronegative or electropositive?
electronegative
What is covalent bonding?
It's the sharing of electrons between two nonmetal elements.
What're Resonant bonds?
It's when there are more than two nonmetal elements sharing electrons.
What's another name for resonant bonding?
aromatic bonding and it involves more than 2 nonmetal atoms bonding.
Does an Ionic bond share or transfer electrons?
It transfers
Does a covalent bond share or transfer electrons?
It shares
Are nonmetals positively charged or negatively charged?
They're positively charged.
Are metals positively charged or negatively charged?
They're negatively charged.
What're the general precautions when dealing with inorganic ionic compounds?
Don't touch, Don't inhale, keep dry "TID"
What are the three endings that all salts will have?
"-ide"
"-ite"
"-ate"
What is IUPAC?
It's the International Union of Pure and applied chemists and is designed to be systematic.
What is the element signature cyanide?
"CN"
What is the element signature oxide?
"O"
What is the element signature chloride?
"Cl"
What is the element signature hydroxide?
"(OH)sub2"
What is the charge of "OH" always?
-1
What is the element signature peroxide?
"Osub2"
What is the element signature carbonate?
"COsub3"
What does the word pi bonds mean?
double bond
What's another word for double bonds?
pi bonds
What're binary salts comprised of?
Metal and Nonmetal elements. the nonmetal must be something outside of oxygen and it must have ide at the end of it.
In words what is a metal oxide salt?
It's a metal ionically bonded to oxygen and must end in oxide. (example sodium oxide)
In words what is a metal hydroxide salt?
It's a metal cation + ionically bonded to a complex ion made of oxygen and hydrogen
In words what is a metal cyanide?
It's a metal that is ionically bonded to a complex ion of carbon and nitrogen.
In words what is a metal peroxide?
It's a alkali or alkaline earth metals ionically bonded to a peroxide radical. That peroxide consists of two atoms of oxygen bonded together.
What're the only two groups of metals that can be used for metal peroxides?
alkali or alkaline earth metals (only groups 1 and 2)
In words what is a metal peroxide?
It's a metal + another element (usually nonmetal) + oxygen.
What does the prefix Hypo mean in regards to metal oxysalts?
a low oxygen content (-1)
What does the prefix "per" mean in regards to metal oxysalts?
a high oxygen content (+1)
what does "hypo______ ite" mean in regards to oxygen content?
it would be 2 less
(ex: Sodium hypochlorite, NaClOsub1)
what does "_______ ite" mean in regards to oxygen content?
1 less
(ex: Sodium chlorite, NaClOsub2)
what does "____ate" mean in regards to oxygen content?
Normal/base state
(ex: Sodium chlorate, NaClOsub3)
what does per______ ate mean in regards to oxygen content?
1 extra
(ex: Sodium Perchlorate, NaClOsub4)
What's the prefix for 1 extra?
"per"
EX: Perchlorate
When two or more nonmetals are bonded what is this bond?
they're covalent bonds. This will be the majority of chemicals we encounter
What're inorganic covalent compounds?
They do not contain carbon
What're the organic covalent compounds
they contain carbon
In regards to naming covalent bonds what're the 4 most common prefixes and their numerical values?
"mono":1
"di":2
"tri":3
"tetra":4
What does the prefix di mean?
two
What do covalent bonds do?
they share
What do Ionic bonds do?
They give
What elements do covalent bonds usually contain?
two or more nonmetals
What're alkanes?
They're saturated hydrocarbons. They have a maximum number of hydrogen atoms. They typically end in "-ane"
What're alkenes?
They're unsaturated hydrocarbons that have fewer hydrogen atoms in their structures and require double bonds between carbon atoms.
they usually end in "ene"
What're Alkynes
They're highly unsaturated hydrocarbons they usually have triple bonds.
What're aromatics?
They're ring structures
What family is usually associated with aromatics?
BTX
Benzene, Toluene, Xylene
What is BTX?
Benzene
Toluene
Xylene
Is aromatic usually saturated or unsaturated? and if so how much?
it's just unsaturated
Is alkane single or double bonded?
it's single bonded
Is alkyne triple or double bonded?
triple
What is the ending typically for alkyne?
"yne"
Of the hydrocarbons which is most reactive?
Alkyne
What're the two structures of a typical isomer?
It's a straight chain or a branched configuration
What is the standard isomer format?
Straight chain structure
When you map a branched isomer what do you add as a prefix to the compound?
you add iso
(Ex: octane is the normal name, but if you want it in a branched format you call it "iso-octane")
Which of the hydrocarbon groups is the most known for its toxity?
aromatic
Within the group aromatic it is the most toxic hydrocarbon. Which of the compounds in this group is most toxic?
benzene
What is an isomer?
Isomers have the same molecular formula but different structure formula.... and most often different physical and chemical properties (and hazards).
Write out the formula for Alkane?
CsubnHsub2n+2
Write out the formula for Alkene?
CsubnHsub2n
Write out the formula for Alkyne
CsubnHsub2n-2
Write out the formula for Aromatic?
CsubnHsub2n-6
What is carbonyl?
it's the four hydrocarbon derivates example (keytones, aldehydes, organic acids and esters)
What is a hydrocarbon derivative?
It's when one or more hydrogens ions are removed and replaced with another compound/element.
How are organic compounds divided intro two main groups?
hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives
What're examples of hydrocarbon radicals?
methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl,pentyl.... etc
How many carbons do you have to have before you start addressing toxicity?
4 or 5.......
If add an item to water and shake it up and it resumes it's normal form shortly after being mixed up what should you assume?
that it's a toxic and comes from the halogen family.
What is miscible?
It means that a liquid will dissolve completely into another.
Are most alcohols miscible?
yes
Is sodium an anion?
No it's a cation
Is calcium an anion or cation?
Anion
Two non metals bonded together would be what?
Covalent
Is neon a cation or anion?
It's neither it's Inert.
What is the chemical form for aldehyde?
you add "CHO"
What is the chemical form that comes with all alcohol?
OH
What is the chemical form that comes with all acid?
COOH
What do all esters end in?
ATE
(example methyl acetATE)
What kind of bond do all carbonyls have?
a double bond, otherwise known as a pi bond they're very stable (C=O)
Are carbonyls soluble(miscible) in water?
yes
How do you recognize a ketone?
CO
How do you recognize an aldehyde?
CHO
How do you recognize organic acids?
COOH
How do you recognize esters?
COO or CO(sub2)
What is the structural formula for Ketone?
O
||
R-C-R
What is the structural formula for Aldehyde?
O
||
R-C-H
What is the structural formula for Organic Acids?
O
||
R-C-O-H
What is the structural formula for Ester?
O
||
R-C-O-R
What's the prefix for aldehydes typically?
eth- or acet-
What is Alcohol recognized by?
OH
What is Ether recognized by?
O
What is Organic peroxide recognized by?
OO otherwise known as O2
What is the structural formula for alcohol?
R-O-H
What is the structural formula for Ether?
R-O-R
What is the structural formula for Organic Peroxide?
R-O-O-R
How do you recognize the type Nitro?
NO2
How do you recognize the type amine?
NH2
How do you recognize the type Nitrile (cyanide)
CN
How do you recognize the type Thiol?
SH
How do you recognize the type Alkyl Halide
F, Cl, Br or I
How do you recognize the type Organophosphate?
P
What is the speed of detonation?
Detonation is burning at or faster than the speed of light
What two things accompany detonation?
Extreme heat and a wave of pressure
What is the speed of deflagration?
slower than the burning of light. and slower than detonation
What is critical temperature in regards to gas and pressure?
It's the temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied.
What is vapor pressure?
It's the tendency of molecules to escape from the surface of a liquid
What is volatility?
Tendency of a solid or liquid material to pass into the vapor state at a given temperature.
What are vapor pressure and volatility related to?
boiling point.
What is critical temperature and pressure?
It's a temperature above which a gas cannot be liquified.
When do flammable liquids pose the greatest hazard
They pose the greatest distance when they're high vapor.
What is adiabatic decompression?
It's when a cylinder is drained it loses heat
What is adiabatic compression?
It's when a cylinder is filled up it heats up.
Where do flammable liquids w/ high vapor pose the greatest hazard?
Some distance away from the cylinder
is vinyl chloride a mix or a pure?
Pure
Is kerosene a mixture or pure?
mixture
Is air a mixture or pure?
Mixture
Is sodium a cation or anion?
cation
What is an Explosion?
It's an oxidizer and a fuel (reducer)