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56 Cards in this Set

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What is Vitiligo?
Areas of white or light skin on an individual.
• Erythema
• Local or generalized skin redness and warmth
• Pallor
• Pale with no pink tones
• Jaundice
• Yellow color
• Pale to pumpkin
• Seen in the sclera, oral mucous membranes, palms, and soles
Lentigo
age spots, liver spots
• Terminal hair
• Scalp
• Axillary
• Body
• Pubic areas
• Vellus Hair
• Covers entire body except for soles, palms, lips, and nipples
Ulcer, Stage 1
ħ Skin not broken
ħ Appears red
ħ No blanching
Ulcer,stage 2
ħ Skin is broken
ħ Superficial skin loss, involving epidermis alone or with dermis
ħ Resembles an erosion
Ulcer, stage 3
ħ Pressure area involves epidermis, dermis, and SQ tissue
ħ Resembles a crater
ħ May have hidden areas of damage extending through the SQ tissue beyond the borders of the external lesion, but not through underlying fascia
Ulcer, stage 4
ħ Pressure area involves epidermis, dermis, SQ tissue, bone, other support tissue
ħ Resembles massive crater with hidden areas of damage in adjacent tissue
Macule
ħ < 1 cm, circumscribed border
ħ Flat, nonpalpable skin color change
ħ Brown, white, tan, purple, red
ħ EX: Flat moles, freckles, petechiae, rubella, rubeola
Patch
ħ >1 cm.
ħ May have irregular border
ħ Flat, nonpalpable skin color change
ħ Brown, white, tan, purple, red
ħ EX: vitiligo, port-wine marks, ecchymosis
Papule
ħ <0.5 cm
ħ Elevated, palpable, solid mass
ħ Circumscribed border
ħ Brown, red, pink, tan, bluish red
ħ EX: elevated nevi (moles), warts, drug-related eruptions
Plaque
ħ >0.5 cm
ħ Elevated, palpable, solid mass
ħ Circumscribed border
ħ May be coalesced papules with flat top
ħ EX: psoriasis, actinic keratosis
Nodule
ƒß 0.5 ¡V 2 cm
ħ Elevated, palpable, solid mass
ħ Extends deeper into the dermis than a papule
ħ Circumscribed
ħ EX: lipoma, squamous cell carcinoma, poorly absorbed injection, dermatofibroma
Tumor
ƒß >1 ¡V 2 cm
ħ Elevated, palpable, solid mass
ħ Extends deeper into the dermis than a papule
ħ Do not always have sharp borders
ħ EX: larger lipoma, carcinoma, neoplasm
Vesicle
ħ <0.5 cm
ħ Circumscribed elevated, palpable mass containing serous fluid, superficial
ħ EX: Herpes simplex/zoster chickenpox, poison ivy, second degree burn (blister)
Bulla
ħ >0.5 cm
ħ Circumscribed elevated, palpable mass containing serous fluid
ħ EX: contact dermatitis, large burn blisters, poison ivy, bullous impetigo
Wheal
ħ Elevated mass with transient borders
ħ Often irregular
ħ Size, color varies
ħ Caused by movement of serous fluid into the dermis
ħ Does not contain free fluid in a cavity
ħ Pale pink with lighter center
ħ EX: hives, insect bites
Pustule
ħ Pus-filled vesicle or bulla
ħ Superficial
ħ EX: acne, impetigo, furuncles, carbuncles
Cyst
ħ Encapsulated fluid-filled or semisolid mass
ħ In the SQ tissue or dermis
ħ Circumscribed
ħ EX: sebaceous cyst, epidermoid cyst
Excoriation
ħ Abrasion of the epidermis
ħ Caused by trauma, chemicals, burns
Eroisions
ħ Does not extend to dermis
ħ Loss of superficial epidermis
ħ Depressed, moist area
ħ EX: ruptured vesicles, scratch marks
Ulcer
ħ Skin loss extending past epidermis
ħ Necrotic tissue loss
ħ Bleeding and scarring possible
ħ Concave
ħ Varies in size
ħ EX: stasis ulcer of venous insufficiency, pressure ulcer
Scar (Cicatrix)
ħ Skin mark left after healing of a wound or lesion
ħ Represents replacement by connective tissue of the injured tissue
ħ Thin to thick fibrous tissue replacing injured dermis
ħ Young scars: red or purple
ħ Mature scars: white or glistening
ħ EX: healed wound or surgical incisions
Fissure
ħ Linear crack in the skin
ħ May extend to the dermis
ħ Small, deep, red
ƒß EX: chapped lips or hands, athlete¡¦s foot
Scales
Ć Flakes secondary to desquamated, dead epithelium
Ć Flakes may adhere to skin surface
Ć Irregular
Ć Dry or oily
Ć Varied size
Ć Color varies (silvery, white)
Ć Texture varies (thick, fine)
Ć EX: dandruff, psoriasis, dry skin, pityriasis rosea
Crust
Ć Dried residue of serum, blood, or pus on skin surface
Ć Large adherent crust is a scab
Ć Slightly elevated
Ć Size varies
Ć Brown, red, black, tan, straw
Ć EX: residue left after vesicle rupture, impetigo, herpes, eczema, scab on an abrasion
Keloid
Ć Secondary to excessive collagen formation during healing
Ć Hypertrophied scar tissue
Ć Elevated, irregular, red
Ć Grows beyond boundaries of wound
Ć Greater incidence in African Americans
Ć EX: ear piercing or surgical incision
Atrophy
Ć Thin, dry, transparent appearance of epidermis
Ć Paperlike
Ć Loss of surface markings
Ć Secondary to loss of collagen and elastin
Ć Underlying vessels may be visible
Ć EX: aged skin, arterial insufficiency
Lichenification
Ć Thickening and roughening of the skin
Ć Accentuated skin markings

Ć May be secondary to repeated rubbing, irritation, scratching
Ć Often involves flexor aspect of extremity
Ć EX: contact dermatitis
Petechia
Ć Round red or purple macule
ƒÜ Small: 1 ¡V 2 mm (<0.5 cm)
Ć Secondary to blood extravasation
Ć Associated with bleeding tendencies or emboli to skin
Ć Nonblanchable
Purpura
Ć Hemorrhagic disease that produces ecchymoses and petechiae
Ć Red-purple discoloration
Ć Nonblanchable
Ć >0.5 cm
Ecchymosis
Ć Round or irregular macular lesion
Ć Red/purple
Ć Nonblanchable
Ć Larger than petechia
Ć Color varies and changes: black, yellow, and green hues
Ć Secondary to blood extravasation
Ć Associated with trauma, bleeding tendencies
Hematoma
Ć A localized collection of blood creating an elevated ecchymosis
Ć Associated with trauma
Strawberry/Cherry angioma
Ć Papular and round
Ć Red or purple
Ć Noted on trunk, extremities
Ć May blanch with pressure
Ć Normal age-related skin alteration
Ć Usually not clinically significant
Spider angioma, Nevus
Ć Red, arteriole lesion
Ć Central body with radiating branches
Ć Noted on face, neck, arms, trunk
Ć Rare below the waist
Ć Blanch with pressure to the central body
Ć Associated with liver disease, PG, vitamin B deficiency
Venous Star/Telangiectasis
Ć Fine, irregular red lines
Ć Shape varies: spider-like or linear
Ć Color bluish or red
Ć Does not blanch when pressure is applied
Ć Noted on legs, anterior chest
Ć Secondary to superficial dilation of venous vessels and capillaries
Ć Associated with increased venous pressure states (varicosities
Basal Cell Carinoma
Ć Most common malignant cutaneous neoplasm
Ć Found on the face
Ć Fair skin and sun exposure
Melanoma
Ć Develop from melanocytes
Ć Cause not known
Ć Asymmetry of borders
Ć Bleeding or crusting
Ć Color blue/black or variegated
Ć Diameter >6 cm
Ć Contributing factors:
Ć Heredity Hormonal factors
Ć UV light exposure
Ć Autoim-munologic affect
Grouped
Ć Lesions clustered together
Linear
Ć Lesions arranged in a line
Ć Scratch/ streak
Annular
Ć Lesions arranged in a circle, ring-shaped
Zoster/Herpetiform
Ć Multiple groups of vesicles erupting unilaterally following the course of cutaneous nerves
Discrete
Ć Distinct, individual, remain separate
Polycyclic
Ć Multiple annular arrangements of lesions
Arciform
Ć Lesions arranged in an arc, bow-shaped
Reticular
Ć Lesions meshed in the form of a network
Confluent
Ć Lesions become merged together, not discrete
Iris/Target
Ć Like iris of eye, concentric rings of lesions
Gyrate
Ć Twisted, coiled, spiral, snakelike
Other Skin Lesions
Corn
Ć A horny induration and thickening of the skin that may be hard or soft according to location
Callus
Ć Rough, thick sections of epidermis
Cutaneous Tag
Skin tag
Contact dermatitis
Ć Inflammation and irritation of the skin due to contact with an irritating substance
Ć Usually due to a combination of reduced ability of the skin to resist injury and exposure to a material in strong concentration (soap/chemical)