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37 Cards in this Set

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What bone makes up the point of the shoulder in the large animals?
Greater tubercle of the humerus
What bone makes up the point of the elbow in the large animals?
The olecranon
What muscle inserts on the cranial part of the serrated face of large animals?

What about the caudal part?
Serratus ventralis cerivicis m.
Serratus ventratlis thoracis m.
What extra tubercle does the horse have on the head of the humerus that the ox doesn't?
The intermediate tubercle
Which side of the humerus is the deltoid tuberosity on? What tuberosity is on the opposite side?
The lateral side.

The teres major tuberosity is on the medial side.
What structure does the lateral supracondylar crest run distal, but parallel to in the large animal humerus?
The deltoid tuberosity
What fossa is directly distal to the head of the humerus in the large animal?
The olecranon fossa
Which large animal has the acromion of the scapula - the horse or ruminant?
The ruminant
Which styloid process is a remnant of the styloid process of the ulna in the large animal radius?
The lateral styloid process.
In the horse, what is the superificial vein coming out of its armpit? What does it drain into?
The superficial thoracic vein (otherwise known as spur vein). It drains into the thoracodorsal vein which drains into the axillary vein (or it drains directly to the axillary vein).
What are the OIAI of latissimus dorsi in large animals?
O: Thoracolumbar fascia arising from thoracic and lumbar vertebrae as far cranially as the highest point of the withers in the horse, T4 in the ruminant; also ribs 9-12 in the ruminant

I: Teres major tuberosity of humerus

Innervation: Thoracodorsal n.

Action: Draw humerus dorsally and caudally thus flexing the shoulder joint; if limb is advanced and fixed, draws trunk cranially
What are the OIAI's of the descending and transverse superficial pectoral m. of the horse?
Descending
O: Cartilage of the manubrium
I: Deltoid tuberosity (in the horse) and crest of humerus and brachial fascia
Innervation: Pectoral nn.
Action: Adduct and advance the thoracic limb

Transverse
O: Costal cartilages 1-6 and adjacent sternum in the horse; sternebrae 2 – 4 or 6 in the ruminant; fibrous raphe between right and left muscles
I: Fascia on the proximal third of the forearm; and on the humerus with descending pectoral in the horse
Innervation: Pectoral nn.
Action: Adduct the thoracic limb and tense the fascia of the forearm
Poorly developed in the ruminant

(ox shown)
What are the OIAI of the deep ascending pectoral muscle in the large animal?
O: Xiphoid cartilage and ventral aspect of sternum, cartilages of ribs 4-9, abdominal tunic

I: Greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus – cranial parts – in the horse and ox; tendon of origin of coracobrachialis in the horse; several attachment sites on the humerus in the small ruminant

Innervation: Pectoral nn.

Action: Adduct and retract the thoracic limb; if the limb is advanced and fixed, draw the trunk cranially

(ox shown)
What is the OIAI of the subclavius muscle in the large animal?
O: Cranial part of the lateral surface of the sternum in the horse; cartilage of the first rib in the ruminant

I: Aponeurosis which covers the dorsal part of the supraspinatus m., and the scapular fascia in the horse; medial surface of the brachiocephalicus near the clavicular intersection in the ruminant

Innervation: Pectoral nn.

Action: In the horse – adduct and retract the thoracic limb; when limb is advanced and fixed, to draw the trunk cranially

(ox shown)
What are the OIAI of supraspinatus m of the large animals?
O: Supraspinous fossa, spine of scapula and distal part of scapular cartilage
I: Cranial parts of greater and lesser tubercles of humerus
Innervation: Suprascapular n.
Action: Extend the shoulder joint
What are the OIAI of the infraspinatus m. of the large animals?
O: Infraspinous fossa and scapular cartilage; spine of scapula in the ruminant
I: Superficial tendon – on the greater tubercle of humerus distal to the lateral insertion of supraspinatus
Infraspinatus bursa
I: Deep tendon – on the caudal part of greater tubercle
Innervation: Suprascapular n.
Acton: Abduct the brachium and rotate it laterally; lateral stabilizer of the shoulder jt.
What is the OIAI of deltoideus m. in the large animals?
Deltoideus m.
O: Proximal part of the caudal border of the scapula and the spine of the scapula by way of an aponeurosis which covers infraspinatus and the acromion in the ruminant
I: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus and brachial fascia
Innervation: Axillary n.
Action: Flex the shoulder jt. and abduct the brachium
What are the OIAI of teres minor m. of large animals?
O: Distal and caudal part of the infraspinous fossa and distal half of the caudal border of the scapula
I: Deltoid tuberosity and teres minor tuberosity
Innervation: Axillary n.
Action: Flex the shoulder jt. and abduct the brachium
What are the OIAI of subscapularis m?
Subscapularis m.
O: Subscapular fossa; and scapular cartilage in the ruminant
I: Caudal part of the lesser tubercle of humerus
Innervation: Subscapular and axillary nn.; also cranial pectoral nn. in horse
Action: Adduct the humerus
What are the OIAI of teres major m.?
O: Caudal angle of the scapula and adjacent caudal border of scapula
I: Teres major tuberosity of humerus
Innervation: Axillary n.
Action: Flex the shoulder jt. and adduct the brachium
What are the four heads of triceps brachii m.?
Long head, lateral head, medial head, accessory head (ruminant)
What are the OIAI of the triceps brachii m.?
O: Long head – caudal border of the scapula
O: Lateral head – deltoid tuberosity, proximolateral humerus, fascia along the lateral aspect of the brachium
O: Medial head – middle third of medial aspect of humerus, caudal and distal to teres major tuberosity
O: Accessory head (ruminant) – caudal border of humerus at middle third

I: Olecranon

Innervation: Radial n.

Action: Extend the elbow jt., flex the shoulder jt.
What are the two bursae of the triceps brachii m.?
Subtendinous: Between long head of triceps and olecranon

Subcutaneous - between skin and olecranon
What are the OIAI of tensor fasciae antebrachii m.?
O: Tendon of insertion of the latissimus dorsi and the caudal border of the scapula
I: Deep antebrachial fascia and the olecranon
Innervation: Radial n.
Action: Tense the fascia of the antebrachium and extend the elbow jt.
What are the OIAI of the anconeus m.?
O: Distal third of the caudal surface of the humerus
I: Lateral surface of the olecranon
Innervation: Radial n.
Action: Extend the elbow jt.; raise the capsule of the joint and prevent it from being pinched during extension
What is inflammation of the bursae of the triceps brachii in large animals called?
capped elbow
What are the OIAI of biceps brachii m.?
O: Supraglenoid tubercle
I: Radial tuberosity of the radius, medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint, antebrachial fascia, tendon of the extensor carpi radialis via lacertus fibrosus
Innervation: Musculocutaneous n.
Action: Flex the elbow jt.; fix the shoulder and elbow while standing; assist the extensor carpi radialis m.; tense the antebrachial fascia
Where is the intertubercular bursa of the biceps brachii m. located?
Located between the tendon of origin of the biceps brachii and the intertubercular groove of the humerus
What is the tendinous insertion of biceps brachii on the extensor carpi radialis m.? It is also part of the stay apparatus.
The lacertus fibrosus
Is the lacertus fibrosus well developed or poorly developed in the ruminant?
poorly developed.
What is the OIAI of the brachialis m.? how is the insertion different in the goat?
O: Proximal third of caudal humerus
I: Proximomedial surface of radius; also on the medial surface of the coronoid process of the ulna in the goat
Innervation: Musculocutaneous n.
Action: Flex the elbow jt.
What is the OIAI of the coracobrachialis m.?
O: Coracoid process of scapula
I: Proximal to teres major tuberosity and middle third of cranial surface of humerus in the horse; teres major tuberosity and cranial medial portion of the humerus in the ruminant
Innervation: Musculocutaneous n.
Action: Adduct the brachium and flex the shoulder jt.
where is the bursa of the coracobrachialis m. located?
located between tendon of origin of coracobrachialis and the terminal part of subscapularis m.
Which bursa is located between infraspinatus and caudal part of greater tubercle of humerus?
Infraspinatus bursa
Which bursa is separate from shoulder joint in horse and ox? It is the same one that is located in the pouch of shoulder joint capsule that extends into the intertubercular groove in sheep and goats.
bicipital bursa
Which bursa is located between olecranon and triceps brachii tendon?
subtendinous bursae of the elbow
Which bursa is located between between triceps brachii tendon and skin?
subcutaneous bursae of the elbow