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64 Cards in this Set

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what is the wolf tooth in the horse?
It's not the canine!
It's the maxillary first premolar - 105 and 205

Must know!
What percentage of horses have a wolf tooth?
80%


Must know!
What is the problem with the wolf teeth in horses?
They aren't well rooted and might be irritated by the bit. Usually removed if they are seen.


Must know!
What are blind wolf teeth? How will the horse present?
The teeth are present, but it hasn't erupted, will determine by radiographs
Horse will be in pain, perhaps have interrupted eating.


Must know!
Equine teeth - hypsodont or brachydont?
hypsodont
How long do equine teeth grow? How much are they worn down a year? Can a horse outlive its teeth?
Grow until 5-7 yrs of age

Crowns erupt 2-3 mm (1/8th inch) each year until 18-20 years (so yes, they can out live them)
Do equine teeth have a crown, neck and root?
No neck - which is typical of hypsodont teeth.
What are the permanent and deciduous dental formulas of the equine?
Permanent
2 (I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3(4)/3, M 3/3) = 40 – 42 (includes canine teeth)

Deciduous
2 (I 3/3, C 0/0, P 3/3) = 24
What factors affect the wear of teeth?
Diet - grazing vs. stall feeding
Cribbing -
Malalignments
Environment - sandy soil
What are cheek teeth?
the pre-molars and molars
What are the standard and cheek teeth numbering system of horse teeth?
The problem with the cheek tooth numbering is whether or not you start with the wolf tooth or not - is it PM1?
Remember the triadan system? Do this for horses.
remember that the deciduous system goes 500-800
What surfaces are horses likely to get points on their teeth? What is the clinical signifigance?
Mandibular teeth get points on the lingual surface

Maxillary teeth get points on the buccal surface – can cut the cheeks, which is painful, could cause quidding.

Must know!
What nerves supply the upper and lower teeth?
Upper teeth
Infraorbital n (from maxillary from trigeminal n.) branches to superior alveolar brs.

Lower teeth
Inferior alveolar n. or mandibular alveolar n. (same nerve) (from mandibular n. of trigeminal n.)
Are canine teeth more developed in female or male horses?
Better developed in male horses

Rudimentary and commonly do not erupt through the gingiva in the mare
What are names for male horses?
Male horses = stallions and gelding.
Which specific teeth are used primarily for aging a horse?
The mandibular incisors.
What are the steps in determining the age of a horse?

How accurate is this method?
-Determine whether incisors are deciduous or permanent (if they are permanent, move on)

-Determine shape of permanent upper corner incisors

-Evaluate eruption of permanent mandibular incisors
--Useful for aging horses up to 5 years of age
--Eruption occurs when tooth breaks through gingiva (gum-line)

-Evaluate occlusal surface of permanent mandibular incisors for wear
--Useful for aging horses greater than 5 years of age
--Takes approximately 6 months for teeth to be “in wear”

This system will age a horse up to 5 years of age to within 6 months. After 10 years of age, the accuracy declines.

MUST KNOW!!!
What counts as a tooth being erupted?
If you can see it, it has erupted.
clinically, why do we use the incisors and pre-molars for aging horses as opposed to the molars?
We can us the molars, but the incisors are much more accessible and the pre-molars can be used to confirm.
Are these teeth deciduous or permanent
Deciduous
They have a neck, they are small, they would be white as they are covered by enamel (not yellow and covered with cementum).
Are these teeth deciduous or permanent?
Permanent
They have no neck, they have a smooth tapering shape from crown to root, they would be yellow and covered with cementum (not white as they are covered by enamel)..
Age these teeth!
5–9 yrs.
Tooth is generally wider than tall

9-10 yrs.
Tooth is square

> 11 yrs.
Tooth is taller than wide
In young horses, are the incisors more horizontal or vertical?
Vertical

With age the incisors approach more of a horizontal angle - Significantly noticeable at approximately 20 yrs. of age

(in picture - young on top, old on bottom)
What are the eruption dates of 701 and 801 in equine teeth?
6 days
What are the eruption dates of 702 and 802 in equine teeth?
6 weeks
What are the eruption dates of 703 and 803 in equine teeth?
6 months
What are the eruption dates of deciduous P2, P3, and P4 in horses?
Between birth and two weeks of age.
If you see 701, 702, 801, 802 in wear with 703 and 803 present, how old is that horse?
about a year.

If 701, 702, 801, and 802 are level, they're about 2 years old.
When does the permanent first incisor to erupt? To be in wear?
At 2 1/2 and 3 years
When does the permanent second incisor erupt in the horse? When is it in wear?
At 3 1/2 and 4 years
When do the permanent third incisors erupt in the horse? When are they in wear?
4 1/2 and 5 years
When do the permanent canines erupt in horses?
3 1/2 to 5 years
When do the permanent premolars and molars erupt in horses?
P1 5 - 6 mos.
P2 2 ½ yrs.
P3 3 yrs.
P4 4 yrs.
M1 1 yr.
M2 2 yrs.
M3 3 ½ - 4 yrs.
What are the double rows of teeth?
The caps - they'll sometimes have to be manually removed as it gets tight in there.
What's with the bumps?
Mandibular remodeling to accommodate the tooth growth.
What happens to the shape of the lower incisors in horses as they age?
They start as oval and change to round (5-9 years), then become triangular (10-15 years), then become biangular (long in the labiolingual direction) at 16-20 years in age (shown).
What does "in wear" mean when talking about horse teeth?
Tooth is at masticatory level and all dental components begin to wear on occlusal surface
What does "level" mean when talking about horse teeth?
Outer enamel ring and inner enamel ring are separated by dentine
What does "cup gone" look like in horse teeth?
Black cavity of infundibulum (cup) is gone
What does "enamel spot" look like in horse teeth?
Thick enamel spot at bottom of infundibulum once the cup is completely gone. It will be raised up since the surrounding dentin is softer.
How old?
You can see the inner and outer enamel ring.
5 years
How old?
cup gone on first incisors, still present on 2nd and third
6 years
How old?
Cups gone on all incisors.
8 years old
What is the dental star?
Dental star is secondary dentine that fills the pulp cavity as the tooth matures
What surface is the dental star located on?
What color is it?

What shape?
Located on the occlusal surface between the labial edge of the incisor and the cup
Yellow to brown in color
Appearance
Starts as dark line
Changes to oval and then to round
What is the only structure on the occlusal surface of the central incisors of equines at 15-18 years of age and farther?
Dental star
On which region and surface is the enamel ring/spot/mark located on of equine teeth?
On lingual region of occlusal tooth surface
When will the enamel ring/spot/mark disappear on the incisors of horse?
I1 11-12 yrs. (12-18 yrs.)
I2 12-13 yrs. (1-3 yrs. after I1)
I3 13-14 yrs. (1-3 yrs. after I1)
What is Galvayne's Groove? Can you count on it to determine horse age?
Inconsistent!!
Longitudinal depression on the labial surface of upper corner incisor
When does galvayne's groove appear? What would it look like at 9? at 15? 20? 25? 30?
First appears at gum-line at 9-10 yrs.
Half way down tooth at 15 yrs.
Along entire tooth at 18-20 yrs.
On distal half of tooth at 25 yrs.
Small notch at distal end of tooth at 30 yrs.
What is a dental hook?
Is it a reliable aid in aging?
Not reliable
When does a dental hook in a horse appear/disappear? What percentage of horses are they in?
the 7-11 tooth. Appears at 7, then gone, and back at 11, then gone again.

Present in 60% of horses.
What are the three main ways that the occlusal surface of equine mandibular incisors can help you age a horse?
Determine the shape of the lower central incisor

Look for table (occlusal) surface structures – “cup”, dental star, enamel spot

Correlate shape of the tooth with table surface structure
What is the infundibulum of the equine tooth?
deep invagination of enamel extending from the occlusal surface into the body of the tooth
What is the cup of the equine tooth?
bowl shaped central depression on the occlusal surface of the incisors
What age range are cups (and their disappearance) a useful indicator of age?
5-9 years
What are the years associated with the disappearance of cups?
Disappearance of cups:
I1 6 yrs. (5 yrs.)
I2 7 yrs.
I3 8 yrs. (12-15 yrs.)
What does the ruminant canine tooth look like?
Lower canine tooth has form and structure of an incisor
What are the dental formulas for the llamas?
Deciduous 2 (I1-2/3, C1/1, P2-3/1-2)
Permanent 2 (I1/3, C1/1, P1-2/1-2, M3/3)
What are the dental formulas for the ruminant?
Permanent
2 (I 0/3, C 0/1, P 3/3, M 3/3) = 32

Deciduous
2(I 0/3, C 0/1, P 3/3) = 20
What are the fighting teeth in camelids
Upper third incisors and the canines.
They are used for fighting.
When are the deciduous teeth of cattle all erupted? What about sheep and goats?
2 weeks for cattle, 4 weeks for small ruminants
When are the permanent teeth of all ruminants all erupted by?
4 years.