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19 Cards in this Set

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Consistency Theories
people attempt to resolve inconsistencies between their beliefs and behaviors by either modifying their behavior or their beliefs
Fritz Hieder's Balance Theory
Three elements:
1) person we're talking about (P); 2) another person (O); 3) thing, idea or third person (X)

balance exists when all three fit together; otherwise, stress exists
ex. disagreeing with someone you dislike

imbalance ex. agreeing with someone you dislike or disagreeing with someone you like
Leon Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory: overview
conflict felt when attitudes don't match behaviors

reduce by either removing dissonant elements or by adding consonant elements
free choice
person makes a choice between several desirable alternatives
positive decision dissonance
emerges after a "free choice" is mage
spreading the alternatives
method of reducing dissonance

a) accentuate the positives of your "free choice" or
b) accentuate the negatives of the discarded option
forced compliance dissonance
required to behave in a way that is inconsistent with one's beliefs
Festinger and Carlsmith (1959): spoon sorting experiment
participants were forced to do a boring, tedious task of sorting spoons for an hour and were then paid $1 or $20 to lie to the next group and say they enjoyed it

the $1 group had more dissoance b/w their behavior and beliefs (because the $20 incentive decrease the tension from lying) --> so the $1 group altered their beliefs to a greater extent
minimal justification effect / nsufficient justifcation effect
when external justification is not satisfactory, will be forced to alter cognitions to match behavior
two main principles of Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance theory
1) If a person is pressured to say or do something against to his or her privately held attitudes, there will be a tendency for him or her to chance those attitudes
2) the greater the pressure to comply, the less this attitude chance. Ultimately, attitude change generally cocurs when the behavior is induced with minimum pressure

note: pressure can be thought of as external justification
Daryl Bem's Self-Perception Theory
attitudes are weak and ambiguous--- one determine's how one feels by observing one's own behavior

there is no discomfort or dissonance because initial attitude are essentially irrelevant
overjustification effect
if an external pressure comes in to compensate for the behavior, one will stop liking the behavior because they will assume the external pressure is actually the driving force
Carl Hovland's Model
communication for the purpose of persuasion
three elements:
1) communicator
2) communication
3) situation
The Communicator
taken a position on an isse and wants others to adopt his/her position
produces communication
Credibility
the degree to which the communicator can be beleived
depends on the trustworthy nature of the source
Carl Hovland and Walter Weiss (1952)
experiment where participants were presented with an article either written by a famous Americna scientist or a Russian newspaper

results: highly credible sources (i.e. the American scientists) are more effective in changing attitudes

however, the sleeper effect still is present
Sleeper effect
the persuasive impact of the high credibility source decreases over time while the persuasive impact of the low credibility source increases
self interest and credibility
one can increase one's own credibility by arguing against own self interest

i.e. a drug addict that argues against the use of narcotics
two sided messages
contain arguments for and against a position

used mostly in media messages