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48 Cards in this Set

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characterisics that are important to look at when determining whether or not a poll is reliable
proper question wording, accurate sample
margin of error helps u determine what about a poll?
# of respondents & error rate
tracking polls
enables campaign to chart its daily rise/fall
exit polls
conducated at polling place on election day
deliberative polls
large scientific sample of americans selected (600) for intensive briefings, discussions, and presentations about issue clusters inclduing foreign affairs, family, & economy.
public opinion
what the ppl. think about an issue or set of issues at any given point in time & opinions are normally measure by opinion polls.
agents/factors that influence political opinion formation
family, mass media, social groups, peers, school, impact of events
direct primary
section of party candidates through the ballots of qualified voters
patronage
jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends & political allies for their support
coattail effect
tendency of lesser known or weaker candidates lower on the ballot to profit in an election by the presence of the partys ticket of a more popular candidate
party that enjoyed dominaice during reconstruction
republican
party has enjoyed dominace since 1970
neither
party in the electorate
voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party
spoils system
firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party & their replacement with loylalists of the newly elected party
party identification generally comes from whom?
a citizen
people who tend to vote democrats
labor unions, women, african americans, hispanics, young people, blue collar workers, unemployed, catholic, jews, and widowed
people who tend to vote republican
chambers of commerce, west, men (split evenly), cuban americans, professionals, exexcutives, white collar workers, high status protestants, married couples, conservatives
initatives
allows citizens to propse legislation & submit to popular vote
referendum
allows legislature to submit proposed legislation for popular approval
recall elections
allow citizens to remove someone from office
total # of electoral votes
538
majority of _____ wins presidency
270
party realignments
are rare occurrences in which existing party affillations change dramatically & the changes last over several election cycles
congressional elections:
candidates tend to be less visible, most candidates are/were state legislators, name recognition is most important battle of campaign, candidates recieve lil media coverage
closed primary
party members allowed to vote
open primary
allow independents & members of otehr parties to vote
blanket primary
voters may vote in either partys primary, but not in both, on an office by office basis.
people who tend to vote:
income, age, gender, & race
political money is regulated under the
federal elections campagin act of 1971, 1974, & 1976
Buckley v. Valeo
struck down limtis on personal campaign spending
PACs may donate
$5,000 per candidate/election
individuals may donate
$21,000 candidate/election
____to all candidates combined a calendar year
$25,000
soft money
money with no limits/rules that is raised & spent outside of federal elecitons guidelines
houses races usally cost _____ for incumbents
$400-700
influential national newspaper:
New York Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times, Wall Street Journal, USA Today, Christian Science Monitor
First president to have a press secretary
FDR
mass media may not be successful in telling ppl what to think, but they are successful in thelling their audience _________________.
what to think about
3/4 of Americans routinely depend on for most of their foreign affairs info
daily newspaper
which party do most jouranlists identify themselves with
democratic
actus reus
the wrongful deed that comprises the physical components of a crime & that generally must be coupled with mens rea to establish criminal liability. A forbidden act
chattel
movable or transferable property. A chattel can be a tangible good or an intangible right (such as a patent)
indictment
the fomral written accusation of a crime, made by a grand jury & presented to a court prosecution against the accused person. The act or process of preparing or bringing forward such a formal written accusation
libel
A defamatory statement expressed in a fixed medium (such as writing, a picture, sign, or electronic broadcast). Libel is classified as both a crime and a tort, but is no longer prosecuted as a crime.
respondeat superior
The doctrine holding an employer or principal liable for the employees or agents wrongful acts committed within the scope of the semployment or agency.
slander
A defamatory statement expressed in a transitory form such as speech. Damages for slander, unlike those for libel, are not presumed & thus must be proved by the plaintiff. The act of making such a statement.
Summary Judgement
A judgement granted on a claim about which there is no genusine issue of material fact and upon which the movant is entitled to prevail as a matter of law. This procedure deveice allows the speedy disposition of a controversy without the need for trial.
Vior Dire
french for "speaking the truth". A preliminary examinatio nof a prospective juor by a judge or lwayer to decide whether the prospect is qualified & suitable to serve on a jury