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193 Cards in this Set

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_____ is responsible for keeping the ground up, so when it is taken without being replenished, _____
water; the ground sinks
_____ occurs when large amounts of ground water are withdrawn from fine-grained sediments
land subsidence
dissolution of _____ causes the creation of caves; if the roof of these caves becomes too weak, they can collapse and the overlying earth will fall into space, which can result in _____
limestone; sinkholes
land subsidence occurs over (large/small) areas
large
subsidence occurs as a result of _____. Why?
ground water pumping; basically, if we start pumping the water out, the soil collapses and sinks, causing the ground level to be lower than it was when it started
sinkholes collapse as a result of _____
ground water pumping
Florida is prone to sinkholes because they have _____ sand with _____ underneath
loose; cave systems/Karst
the rock involved with sinkholes is predominantly _____ or those dissolved by ground water
limestone
Describe the formation of a sinkhole.
When rain falls into the atmosphere it comes into contact with carbon dioxide, causing carbonic acid to form that rains on limestone and dissolves it at a crack where a dip-slip fault occurs. This water dissolves limestone, causing spaces and caverns to develop beneath the surface. The land above stays intact until there is not enough support for the land, at which point it collapses.
Sinkholes are concentrated in areas of the United States where certain rock types such as _____ and _____, which are susceptible to dissolution in water.
evaporites; carbonates
_____ rocks such as salt, gympsum, and anhydrite underlie about 35-40% of the United States and are many times buried at great depths
evaporite
salt, gypsum, and anhydrite are examples of _____ rocks
evaporite
limestone and dolomite are examples of _____ rocks
carbonate
_____ for urban water supply and irrigation can produce new sinkholes if pumping results in a _____ of ground-water levels
ground-water pumping; lowering
sinkholes are formed due to poor land use practices, such as
ground-water pumping and construction/development practices, such as building new water-division systems
sinkholes can occur when _____ patterns are changed, such as when _____ and runoff-storage _____ are created
natural water drainage; industrial; ponds
the overburdened sediments that cover buried cavities in aquifer systems are balanced by _____ fluid pressure; the water below the ground is actually helping to keep the surface soil in place
ground-water
Karst landscape and sinkholes are formed on _____ by groundwater dissolving and enlarging subterranean openings, which start as small cracks in the rock
limestone
as openings grow in size, they will reach closer to the ground surface; when they reach this surface, they open as _____
sinkholes
sinkholes can flood when
heavy rainfall occurs
heavy _____ or changes in the volume of water drained into a sinkhole can contribute to sinkholes collapsing
rainfall
_____ occurs when stormwater runoff exceeds the drainage capacity of a sinkhole; this drainage capacity depends on what two things?
sinkhole flooding; (1.) the size of the open passage into the aquifer and (2.) the level of the water table
sinkhole flooding occurs when?
when stormwater runoff exeeds the drainage capacity of a sinkhole
a generalized term for the movement of materials downslope
mass wasting
the general term for when things erode, decay, breakdown, etc.
weathering
Ohio surface materials were brought by _____; materials were eroded and picked up by the ice and transported
glaciers
True or false? There are places on Earth that are not affected by weathering and erosion.
false
includes those processes by which rock materials are decomposed by the alteration of parent material
chemical weathering
involves the ALTERATION of the parent material
chemical weathering
salt dissolving and breaking into sodium and chlorine is an example of
chemical weathering
if you put carbonic acid on limestone and break the limestone into calcium bicarbonate, it is an example of
chemical weatheirng
water is a very good agent of erosion because it is _____ and because therefore likes to carry _____ away
polar; ions
involves physical forces breaking materials into smaller pieces
mechanical/physical weathering
the products of mechanical weathering are chemically _____ as their parent materials
the same
frost action, pressure release, thermal expansion and contraction, salt crystal growth, and the activities of organisms are all examples of
mechanical/physical weathering
How can organisms affect mechanical weathering?
Burrowing animals can undermine foundations, etc.
Increasing the surface area _____ the chance for weathering. Why?
increases; there is more surface area
when we fracture and break things up, erosion goes _____. Why?
faster; there is more surface area, meaning there is a greater chance for weathering
When rocks dissolve, we get small
pits
a layer that is _____ is more susceptible to weathering. Why?
undercut; it is more susceptible to form recesses
organic material at the top of soil creates a lot of
acid
Who has the most landslides per capita in the United States?
Cincinnati
the rapid downward and outward movement of large rock material and/or soil masses under the influence of gravity
landslide
the term landslide means the rapid _____ and _____ movement of large rock material and/or soil masses under the influence of _____
downward; outward; gravity
_____ attracts everything with mass towards the center of the Earth and gives everything _____
gravity; potential energy
potential energy means energy that causes something to want to
go down
over geologic time, all slopes are inherently _____ because everything seeks a lower state of order
unstable
over geologic time, all slopes are inherently unstable because they all seek _____
a lower state of order
How can we measure the pull of gravity?
by using trigonometry to measure the downhill
within the trigonometry to measure gravity, the _____ pushes the block against the slope whereas the _____ pushes the block down the slope; the _____ is a vertical force that pushes the block straight down
normal component; shear component; force of gravity
within the trigonometry to measure gravity, as the hill gets steeper, the _____ increases so it wants to push the block down more whereas the _____ is less so the material does not stick as well and therefore the block slides
shear component; normal component
when you pour more sand on something, the _____ remains the same; it does not matter how tall it is as long as it is composed of the same thing
angle of repose
no matter how tall a hillside is, if it is made out of the same material it will have the same _____
angle of repose
the angle of repose for hillsides around here is between _____ and _____ degrees; if you find one that is higher, eventually it will go into a house
11 and 12
material with a _____ angle of repose form flatter piles than materials with a _____ area of repose
lower; higher
_____ is what causes the angle of repose
angularity
coarse materials can have a _____ angle of repose
steeper
What are three factors that control slope stability?
(1.) Angle of repose for material (solid rock can have steeper slope), (2.) Amount of water (adding water will cause materials to be heavier and pull them down), 3.) Discontinuities (fractures, cleavage, bedding, etc.) (causes rocks to be weaker, can be oriented so rocks slide downhill)
What are some potential triggers for mass movements?
Earthquakes, volcanoes, development, wind, and rain (water will fall into cracks, increase the mass and allow gravity to pull it down more)
True or false? Granite causes landslides.
False
Why do areas around the Appalachian mountains have the highest potential for landslides? Why do the Rocky Mountains not have very much potential for landslides?
The Appalachian Mountains are older and therefore less stable, they are composed of "gooey" material, etc.. The Rocky Mountains are more stable and composed of GRANITE, so they are less inclined to landslides.
What areas are most susceptible to landslides?
Mountain areas, areas along the west coast (earthquakes, erosion, heavy rain), locations along rivers, specific geologic units
_____ is derived from the physical and chemical weathering of limestone and shale in the vicinity of Northern Kentucky and Cincinnati; this is subject to _____ movement and has therefore been identified as a poor foundation material
colluvium; downslope
_____ are derived from the Kope Formation
colluvial soils
Colluvial soils are derived from the _____
Kope Formation
the gentler the slope, the _____ the infiltration of ground water
greater
the _____ the slope, the greater the infiltration of ground water
gentler
a _____ must be on a cliff; large blocks below may indicate the potential for this
fall
a _____ involves a somewhat intact block at the start of movement that typically detaches along a bedding plane, fault, or other discontinuity
rock slide
a _____ involves curved surfaces in either rock or loose materials; also called a slump
rotational slide
in _____, rocks are attached to the side of the mountain and fall right off (think steeper)
fall
in _____, the rocks slide right down a mountain but it's more gradual
rock slide
in _____, rocks rotate on down the entire hillside
rotational slide
when an elevated rock mass separates along a joint, bedding, or weakness and falls downward through the air in free fall until hitting the ground, bouncing and rolling
falls
mass movements that behave like fluids; internal movements dominate and slip surfaces are absent or short-lived
flows
flows are mass movements that behave _____ and _____ movements dominate
like fluids; internal
True or false? Flows involve all sizes of materials, both wet and dry materials, barely moving to greater than 200 mph materials, and graduation from movement on slip surface to no slip surface.
true
involves slow, continuous, downward movement in weak materials; occurs on most slopes but at different rates
creep
when unconsolidated material detaches along some interface, turns into a liquid and falls down you get _____
debris slide
weak, with a matrix of fine-grained materials that move like wet concrete; the ground liquifies and goes down everywhere; also called mudflow
Earth flow
the slowest, most widespread form of slope failure
creep
an almost imperceptible downhill movement of soil and uppermost bedrock layers; usually seen by its effect on objects that are deformed or leaning downhill
creep
creep is the _____, most _____ form of slope failure that moves _____
slowest; widespread; downward
creep occurs by the swelling and shrinking of soil in response to what three things?
(1.) the freezing and expanding of water in pores, (2.) the absorption of water and expansion of clay materials, and (3.) heating by the sun and the increase in volume that comes with it
with regard to creep, soil expands _____ to the ground surface and shrinks straight _____ in response to gravity
perpendicular; downward
Curved tree-trunks are an indicator of _____
creep
What is the difference between slides and flows?
Slides involve something sliding on top of a surface and moving as a semisolid mass, with some coherence maintained within the mass; flows move as very viscous fluids and there is turbulence within the moving mass
The most abundant of sedimentary minerals
clays
_____ form during the chemical weathering of rocks
clays
clay crystals are very small and shaped like _____
books
water molecules can move between the layers of clay and make them slide _____
easier
altering the _____, _____, and _____ of clays can cause their chemical composition to change
strength, size, and water content
involves the movement of a block above a failure surface; can be either rotational or translational
slides
_____ move downward and outward above curved slip surfaces; the head moves downward and rotates backward while the toe moves upward on top of landscape; moves short distances
rotational slide
_____ slides move short distances
rotational
rotational slides move downward and outward above _____ slip surfaces
curved
_____ move on planar slip surfaces such as faults, joints, and clay-rich layers and move as long as they are a downward-inclined surface and a driving mass exists
translation slides
translational slides continue moving as long as they are
(1.) moving on a downward-inclined surface, and (2.) a driving mass exists
How can removing vegetation contribute to a slide?
Vegetation absorbs falling rain and enhances absorption capacity (roots hold soil in place) as well as retards surface runoff and traps fine sediment.
The bottom of a landslide is referred to as the _____
failure surface
The material above the failure surface is the _____ and _____
driving mass; resisting mass
A slope is held in place by equilibrium between the _____ and the _____/_____
failure surface; driving mass and resisting mass
How can humans cause landslides?
(1.) Adding mass high on the slope (like with view lots) or (2.) Removing mass from the base of a slope (like to widen a road or flatten a lot), or both
the ultimate source of energy for weather and climate and the disasters they cause
the sun
an agent of the distribution of energy (from the sun)
gravity
short-term processes such as tornadoes, heat waves, hurricanes, and floods that determine what we actually get
weather
long-term processes such as ice ages, droughts, atmosphere changes, and ocean circulation shifts that determine what we expect
climate
The sun heats the Earth _____
unevenly
Equatorial regions receive about _____ (more/less) solar energy than polar regions
2.4 times more
Earth's spin and gravity set up _____ in the ocean and the atmosphere to even out heat distribution
circulation patterns
_____ determine weather and climate
circulation patterns
circulation patterns determine _____ and _____
weather; climate
hot air is _____ dense than cold air
less
Why does hot air rise?
If you heat air up, there is more space between them and molecules are moving faster with less gravitational attraction -- gravity is not pulling it down as much
Gravity pulls/attracts the _____, more dense air as well as water vapor and creates _____ in the atmosphere
colder; circulation currents
of the solar radiation received by Earth, 30% of it is _____ back to space
reflected
of the solar radiation received by Earth, 23% of it powers _____
the hydrologic cycle
of the solar radiation received by Earth, 47% of it is directly converted to _____
heat
when energy hits the Earth at a direct angle, it is _____
absorbed
when energy hits the Earth at an indirect angle, it is _____ and _____
absorbed; reflected
The relative amounts of energy that is reflected, used in the hydrologic cycle, and converted to heat are _____ at different latitudes
different
The equatorial belt faces the sun directly, so massive amounts of solar radiation are _____
absorbed
Polar regions receive solar radiation at a low, indirect angle so much of it is _____, resulting in a _____
reflected; net cooling
Excess heat at the equator is _____ through mid-latitudes to polar regions
transferred
Polar regions receive less solar radiation, meaning they are _____; more snow and ice forms as a result of being colder, resulting in a higher _____ or reflectivity; more solar radiation is reflected, so less is absorbed and poles get _____
colder; albedo; colder
the measure of reflectivity of a surface or body
albedo
snow has a _____ albedo because a lot of the energy is reflected back
high
A high albedo _____ Earth's surface temperature
lowers
the Greenhouse effect _____ Earth's surface temperature
raises
Solar radiation reaches Earth at _____ wavelengths
short
Absorbed solar radiation _____ Earth's surface temperature
raises
Excess heat is re-radiated at _____ wavelengths
long
Long wavelengths (which are excess heat that have been re-radiated) are absorbed by _____ such as water vapor, CO2, and methane in the atmosphere and radiated back down Earth's surface, _____ Earth's climate
greenhouse gases; warms
about _____ of long wavelength re-radiated excess heat is _____, and the Earth _____ as a result
95%; trapped; warming
Without greenhouse gases, the average surface temperature of the Earth would be about _____ degrees Celsius or _____ degrees Fahrenheit
-16; 3
If you raise or lower the amount of greenhouse gases in a system, the _____ changes
temperature
Solar radiation reaches the Earth at _____ wavelengths
short
_____ reaches the Earth at short wavelengths
solar radiation
Do greenhouse gases form naturally?
Yes, as a result of things like breathing, burning fossil fuels, etc.
True or false? Greenhouse gases are an important part of the Earth's energy budget.
True
A _____ exists between the Earth's surface temperature and the amount of greenhouse gasses
balance
Why is Earth's surface temperature important to us as a species?
It makes the Earth habitable.
The equator is hot and gets more _____ sunlight and _____ it less; more energy is _____ and re-radiated at _____ wavelengths
direct; reflects; absorbed; long
The polar regions are cold and get more _____ sunlight and _____ it more ; _____ means that less of this sunlight is re-radiated at long wavelengths
indirect; reflects; albedo
The equator has _____ of a greenhouse gas effect whereas polar regions have _____ of a greenhouse gas effect
more; less
a closed circulation cell in which hot air rises in the center and cool air sinks
Hadley cell
The equatorial regions get heated _____ than the poles, setting up an overall flow of warm air _____ the equator and of cold air _____ the poles
away from; away from
_____ is easily compressed and gets denser and denser closer to Earth's surface
air
Air flows from _____ to _____ pressure, (upward/downward) in atmosphere
higher; lower; upward
As heated air rises, it is under _____ pressure, so it _____
less/lower; expands
To remember air has a higher pressure, think of how it will increase pressure when it bears down on your shoulders
none
Atmosphere transports heat from _____ latitudes to _____ latitudes
high; low
At _____ latitudes, solar radiation at the equator powers a circulation pattern of _____
low; Hadley cells
Cooled air from Hadley cells spread and sinks at _____ degrees N and _____ degrees S
30; 30
Warm equatorial air rises at the _____, the cools and drops condensed moisture in the tropics
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
_____ are what give us a lot of storms
Hadley cells
Within the middle and high latitudes, cold air flows over land from the poles to rise at _____ around 60 degrees N and 60 degrees S
subpolar low
When air flow is modified by Earth's rotation it is known as
the Coriolis effect
The global wind pattern is _____ by continental masses
disrupted
Where would you expect to see severe weather?
Middle latitudes, because there is turbulent competition between polar and tropical air masses
Sunlight has its maximum heated effect at _____, where _____, _____ air causes heavy rainfall
the equator; rising, heated
With regard to the Coriolis effect, the velocity of rotation _____ from latitude to latitude; it is _____ at the equator
varies; higher
Within the coriolis effect, bodies moving to different latitudes follow _____ paths
curved
_____ determines the path of ocean currents, large wind systems, and hurricanes
Coriolis effect
Earth is spinning on its axis, so the winds from Hadley cells are blowing in small areas like directly south -- but it looks like it is blowing a certain direction because Earth is turning into the wind as a result of _____
the Coriolis effect
in the Coriolis effect, in the northern hemisphere the curved paths veer to the
right
in the Coriolis effect, in the southern hemisphere the curved paths veer to the
left
tropical oceans and land experience _____
monsoons
the direction of winds and heat _____ with seasons
changes
in the season of _____, hot, dry air rises over the land and low pressure pulls in cool, moist air from above the ocean to replace it; moist air rises at warms and vapor condenses to fall as rain
summer
in the season of _____, cool, dry air sinks toward the land surface
winter
in the Northern hemisphere, rising warm air creates a _____ pressure area, meaning that air flows _____ low pressure in a _____ direction
low; toward; counterclockwise
in the Northern hemisphere, sinking cold air creates a _____ pressure area, meaning that air flows _____ high pressure in a _____ direction
high; away; clockwise
The dominant air mass movement direction in North America is _____ to _____
west; east
_____ Ocean air masses have more impact than those from the _____ Ocean
Pacific; Atlantic
Dry air masses form over _____, wet air masses form over _____
land; ocean
North America has _____ polar air masses and _____ tropical air masses
cold; warm
What kind of front causes tall clouds and thunderstorms?
Cold front
_____ fronts moves in and under warm air mass, lifting it up and causing tall clouds and thunderstorms
cold
_____ fronts involve warm air flowing up and over cold air masses, causing widespread clouds
warm
widespread clouds form as a result of _____ fronts
warm
relatively narrow bands of high-velocity winds flowing from west to east at high altitudes
jet streams
jet streams are relatively narrow bands of _____-velocity winds flowing from _____ to _____ at _____ altitudes
high; west; east; high
surface circulation is driven mostly by
winds
water density is increased by what two things?
(1.) lower temperature (2.) increased dissolved salt content
densest ocean water forms in _____ and _____ ocean
northern Atlantic and Southern Ocean
We get severe weather when we mix _____ air with _____ air
warm; cold
Ocean water has a higher density where?
(1.) higher latitudes (because it is a lower temperature), (2.) Arctic and Antarctic (freshwater frozen in sea ice; remaining water is made saltier, (3.) Warm climates (fresh water evaporated, remaining water is made saltier)
If we increase the temperature at the equator, what will it do to weather systems?
Increasing temperature increases the amount of energy associated with Hadley cells, making them move faster; if they move faster, they will have winds go further
any contaminant that is spilled (fuel) or injected (septic systems) into Karst systems will have _____ time in the soil for bacteria to _____ the spill, meaning it will move through the system _____ spreading contamination
little; clean up; rapidly
when material moves down slope and encounters a less steep area, the material will not be pulled as much by gravity and will stop moving; the area where this occurs is known as a _____
colluvial foot slope
"appreciable slope wash and lateral movement of soil and water" is the _____ part of the diagram going from left to right and occurs at the part called the _____
second; seepage slope
"re-deposition by mass movement and some surface wash" is the _____ of the diagram going from left to right and occurs at the part called the _____
sixth; colluvial foot slope