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13 Cards in this Set

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#149- Scientific Developments and the Rise of Social Uncertainty
Even before the first world war scientists were discovering that nature was very complex.
#150- Scientific Developments
In 1895 Wilhelm Rontgen made an accidental discovry of X-Rays. In 1920 Marie Curie isolated radium. Ernest Rutheford explained that all atoms had a nucleus. max Planck discovered that energy did not flow continuously but was delivered in quanta. Albert Einstein developed the theory of relativity.
#151- Philosophy
Philosophers like Friedrich Nietzsche said that society was ruled by religion and that we must kill God. his most famous work was Thus Spake Zarathustra he said we need to break away from traditional morality. When he died his siter edited all of his work to say that he supported Hitler.
#152- Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud tried to use science to try and fight mental diseases. In his Interpertation of Dreams he says Dreams revealed the inner working of our subconscious. In Civilization and It's Discontens, he said that violence was at the heart of every human being.
#153- The Arts
The Artists were beginning to break away from tradition and some people didn't like it. They tried to reveal emotions instead of the way thing really look.
#154- THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914- 1918)- Causes of the War
Even though the Versailles Treaty said that the Germans and their allies were responsible for starting the war, this is not the full reality
#155- The New Imperialism: The Colonozation of Africa
In the 1880s, Europeans began to start conquering Africa and Asia without any regress. This period became known as the "new imperialism". This expansion was built on a foundation of technological advances. Some factors for this expansion were search for profits, the desire for raw materials and precious metals, some social imperialists wanted the land so Europe wouldn't become overpopulated, Nationalism because the people wanted to matter on a global scale, religion Social Darwinism because some believed white people were superior. The moral imperative behind imperialism was discussed at the Berlin Conference where they said they would try and control slavery and make Africans live's better. In what became known as the "mad scramble" for colonies, there was little regard for locals. Only two states remained free, Ethiopia and Liberia.The British then took over India and made it a priority. In China, Great Britain took over their economy but never had territorial conquest. This became known as "informal empire". Then the territorial invasion came and China was forced to give up a series of " treaty ports" along the coasst. The French took over Indochina except for Thailand. In 1910, Japan copied the economic system of Germany and Great Britain and conquered Korea. In Belgian Congo, many people were enslaved or died in the pursuit for profits.The Beor War dimmed interest in imperialism for the common people.
#156- Political and Social Tensions in Europe
Politicians willingly pursued a foreign war in the hope that it would distract from political differencess.
#157- Great Britain and Ireland
Great Brtain was always bothered by the conflict in Ireland and a number of labor conflicts.
#158- France
In France the Third Republic was in crisis over the Dreyfus Affair, which began in 1894, and revealed the anti-Semitism in France.
#159- Russia
In 1904 the Russo-Japanese War came about and revealed how poor the state really was and following the revolution a year later, a Duma was created making Russia a constitutional monarchy. The Tsar at the time, Nicholas II agreed to work in conjuction with the parlaiment.
#160- Germany and Austria-Hungary
Both of the states' governemnt welcomed the war as a means to escape the inner problems of the state and governemnt.
#161- Entangling Alliances
In Germany, Bismarck had created the DUal Alliance with Austria-Hungary to watch out for the Russians. Then the Russians signed a treaty with France that said if either attacked Germany, then they would fight together. Then Great Britain and France signed the Entente Cordiale with France to make a powerful alliance.