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58 Cards in this Set

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When a gas is completely IONIZED, it is only composed of what?
Atomic nuclei and electrons.
Name the three layers the Sun's atmosphere and when they are visible.
Photosphere - Always
Chromosphere - Solar Eclipse
Corona - Eclipse
What is a solar wind?
Wind of charged particles that begins as a gas flowing outward from the Sun's corona.
What are the Van Allen Belts?
2 huge rings in E's Magnetic field.
What is an Aurora?
The result of the particles from the Sun colliding with gases in E's atmosphere.
What are sunspots? In what way do they occur?
Dark spots on the surface of the photosphere. In pairs with opposite magnetic polarities.
How long is the solar activity cycle?
22.4 years
What are coronal holes?
Areas of low density in the gas of the corona.
What are solar flares?
Violent eruptions of particles and radiation from the surface of the Sun.
What is prominence? Where is it ejected from?
An arc of gas that is ejected from the chromosphere.
What is the name of the inner sunspot ring? The outer?
Umbra, pernumbra
The theory of special relativity (E=mc²) ‎states that...
Mass equals energy, & matter can be converted into energy.
What is fusion?
The combining of light-weight nuclei into heavier nuclei.
What is fission?
The splitting of heavy nuclei into smaller, lighter atomic nuclei.
In the radiative zone... (80%)
Energy is transferred from particle to particle by RADIATION.
In the convective zone...
Moving volumes of gas carry energy to the Sun's surface through convection.
What is a spectrum? How is it arranged?
A visible light arranged according to wavelengths.
What are the 3 types of spectra?
ACE - Absorption, Continuous, Emission
The solar composition of most stars and the Sun is...
73% Hydrogen, 25% Helium
Constellations are, and contstellations resemble...
Groups of stars that form a pattern in the sky - animal, myth character, everyday object
What are the types of constellations that can always be seen and appear to move around the North pole of Earth?
Circumpolar constellations.
A cluster is... What are the two types?
A group of stars that are gravitationally bound to one another. Open & globular.
In a binary star... Both orbit...
Only two stars are gravitationally bound to one another and both orbit a common center of mass.
What happens in an eclipsing binary?
Two starts alternately block eachother out and cause the total brightness to dip each time.
A parsec is...
The distance at which an object has a parallaz of 1 arcsecond.
What is parallax? What is it caused by?
The apparent positional shift of an object causaed by the motion of the observer.
What is apparent magnitude?
How bright a star appears to be.
What is absolute magnitude?
The brightness an object would have if it were placed at 10pc.
What is luminosity?
The energy output from the surface of a star per second.
What are watts?
The units of energy emitted per second.
Spectral lines provide info on what?
Composition and temperature.
When spectral lines are blueshifted...
They are shifted toward shorter wavelengths. (To observer)
What spectral lines are redshifted...
They are shifted toward longer wavelengths. (Away from observer)
The Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram is...
A graph that relates stellar characteristics.
Tha main sequence is...
The broad strip along the HR diagram. Includes about 90% of stars
Red giants are...
Larger, cool, luminous stars
What one factor makes one stars spectrum appear different from the others?
Temperature.
The temperature of a star determines --> The rate of nuclear reactions which determines -->
Energy output (luminosity)
__ is the hottest spectral type, and __ is the coolest.
O , M
Spectral types are based on (2)...
Spectral lines and stellar temperatures.
What 2 factors of a star determine nearly all of its properties?
Mass and composition.
The balance between gravity squeezing inward and pressure from nuclear fusion and radiation pushing outward is...
Hydostatic Equilibrium
A nebula is...
A cloud of interstellar gas and dust that collapses on itself.
A disk-shaped cloud contracting at its center that forms a new star is...
A protostar.
How long does it take for the Sun to convert all Hydrogen to Helium?
10 billion years.
Where outer layers expand once again and are driven off entirely by pulsations there is...
Planetary nebula.
Why is a white dwarf stable?
Because it is supported by the resistance of electrons being squeezed together.
The collapsed, dense core of a star that forms quickly while its outer layers are falling inward that contains only neutrons is...
A neutron star.
A supernova is...
A massive explosion in which the outer portion of a star is blown off.
A nebula collapses as a result...
Of its own gravity.
A small extremely dense remnant of a star whose gravity is so immense that not even light can escape its gravity field is...
A black hole.
The suns main two elements ... (%)
90% Hydrogen, 8% Helium
The heat of the Sun's core will...
Strip away electrons from the nucleus of an atom.
In E=mc²‎....
E= energy
M= mass
C= constant
What do solar flares cause?
Auroras.
Who discovered sunspots from his telescope?
Galileo.
What did Tycho Brache measure?
Position of the stars and planets.
What did Johannes Kepler write?
The laws of planetary motion.