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125 Cards in this Set

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GIS
geographic information sciences. The computer models (maps, globes) and their respective analysis
layer
collections of geographic objects that are alike. ex. cities, countries
feature
A representation of a real-world object on a maps
surface
A geographic phenomenon represented as a set of continuous data (such as elevation, geological boundaries, or air pollution); a spatial distribution which associates a single value with each position in a plane, usually associated with continuous attributes.(oceans)
attribute
informations about the features in a layer that is stored in a table
table
A set of data elements arranged in rows and columns. Each row represents a single record. Each column represents a field of the record. Rows and columns intersect to form cells, which contain a specific value for one field in a record.
vector
polygons, lines, and points are collectively called vector data
raster
common kind of surface. matrix of indentically sized square cells. Each cell represents a unit of surface and contains a measured or estimated value for that location
coordinates
location of a point feature on a map is defined by a pair of x, y coordinates. a straigth line needs two pairs of coordinates for instance.
point
an x, y coordinate
line
two pairs of coordinates
polygon
line returns to its starting point (shapes)
scale
commonly expressed as a ratio. relationship between the size of features on a map and the corresponding places on the world
overlap
features occupying the same location that specify shared conditions (temperature and elevation)
ArcReader
entry level model for ArcGIS. Free, comes with every ArcGIS. Allows you view, print, and navigate around the map
ArcView
makes the map and data that ArcReader only views and prints
ArcEditor
complete arcview functionality with additional tools
ArcInfo
top of the line. arceditor + spatial analysis tools
ArcMap
application for making maps and analysizing data
ArcCatalog
Data management app
ArGIS spatial analysit
maps and analysizes measured data like elevation, rainfall etc
Arc3D Analyist
ability to see spatial data in 3D
ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst
lets you elevaute spatial data according to statistical principles.
ArcGIS Desktop
a GIS software line
ArcPad
GIS on pocket comps
Tools/toolbar
ways to work with data and evaluate maps/toolbars hold collection of similar tools
table of contents
breakdown of different layers shown in the display
Display Frame
area that shows the map
Dialog Box
screen that allows commands to be entered
Scale Dependent
when features appear on the map based on a given scale.
spatial bookmark
save a specific view of a map
fields (attributes)
A column in a table that stores the values for a single attribute.
catalog tree
used for browsing data. Shows folders and files in descending order
geodatabase
contains feature classes.
shape file
A vector data storage format for storing the location, shape, and attributes of geographic features. A shapefile is stored in a set of related files and contains one feature class.
raster file
??? In ArcGIS, a layer that references a raster as its data source and a raster renderer that defines how the raster data should be rendered and any additional display properties.-------A spatial data model that defines space as an array of equally sized cells arranged in rows and columns, and composed of single or multiple bands. Each cell contains an attribute value and location coordinates. Unlike a vector structure, which stores coordinates explicitly, raster coordinates are contained in the ordering of the matrix. Groups of cells that share the same value represent the same type of geographic feature.
layer file
not spatial datasets, but instructions for displaying spatial datasets with certain colors, symbol markers, line widths, and so son
metadata
data about data. information about a dataset (ex coordinate system used)
file extension
The abbreviation following the final period in a file name that indicates the file's format, such as .shp, .zip, or .tif. File name extensions are usually one to four letters long.
feature class
In ArcGIS, a collection of geographic features with the same geometry type (such as point, line, or polygon), the same attributes, and the same spatial reference. Feature classes can be stored in geodatabases, shapefiles, coverages, or other data formats. Feature classes allow homogeneous features to be grouped into a single unit for data storage purposes. For example, highways, primary roads, and secondary roads can be grouped into a line feature class named 'roads.' In a geodatabase, feature classes can also store annotation and dimensions.
MDB file
geodatabase file into which, shape and layer and raster files can be added
data view
map display and table of contents.An all-purpose view in ArcMap and ArcReader for exploring, displaying, and querying geographic data. This view hides all map elements, such as titles, north arrows, and scale bars.
layout view
page sent to printer
data frame
in layout view, map layers orgranized in one or more rectangles (data frames) on a larger background.-------A map element that defines a geographic extent, a page extent, a coordinate system, and other display properties for one or more layers in ArcMap. A dataset can be represented in one or more data frames. In data view, only one data frame is displayed at a time; in layout view, all a map's data frames are displayed at the same time. Many cartography texts use the term 'map body' to refer to what ESRI calls a data frame.
symbol(izing)
A graphic used to represent a geographic feature or class of features. _____ can look like what they represent (trees, railroads, houses), or they can be abstract shapes (points, lines, polygons) or characters. Symbols are usually explained in a map legend.
quantitative attributes
attributes taht are measurements or counts of features
categorical (qualitative) attributes
names or descriptions. usually text but may be numbers if its code standing for description
attributes
Nonspatial information about a geographic feature in a GIS, usually stored in a table and linked to the feature by a unique identifier. For example, attributes of a river might include its name, length, and sediment load at a gauging station.
raster cell
contains a value, usually a quantity, that has been measured at the location represented by the cell.
pyramids
versions of a raster dataset, varying from coarse to fine resolution. used to improve drawing speed.
color ramp
A range of colors used to show ranking or order among classes on a map.
add data
add new features and layers to an existing map
graduated color
a scaled symbology diesplays features as shades in a range of colors that changes graduated-------A map on which a range of colors indicates a progression of numeric values. For example, increases in population density might be represented by the increased saturation of a single color, or temperature differences by a sequence of colors from blue to red.
graduated symbol
scaled symbology. represents features using different marker sizes
proportional symbol
vary in size proportionally to the value symbolized.
dot density
available for polygon layer only, represents quantities by a random patter of dots. greater the value, the more dots are displayed within the feature boundary.
data classification
ways to organize data
natural breaks (jenks)
default method. creates classes according to clusters and gaps in data
equal interval (breaks)
creates classes of equal value ranges
defined interval (breaks)
equal interval except that the interval determines the number of classes rather than the other way around.
quantile breaks
creates classes containing equal number of features
standard deviation
creates classes according to a specified number of standard deviations from the mean value-------A data classification method that finds the mean value, then places class breaks above and below the mean at intervals of either .25, .5, or 1 standard deviation until all the data values are contained within the classes. Values that are beyond three standard deviations from the mean are aggregated into two classes, greater than three standard deviations above the mean and less than three standard deviations below the mean.
manual
set whatever class breaks you like.
histogram
a frequency distribution map
masking
a means of covering or hiding features on a map to enhance cartographic representation. For example, masking is often used to cover features behind text to make the text more readable.
Dynamic labels
having the ability to label all feature in a layer with a single click.
annotations (labels)
In cartography, text or graphics on a map that provide information for the map reader. Annotation may identify or describe a specific map entity, provide general information about an area on the map, or supply information about the map itself.---------In ArcGIS, text or graphics that can be individually selected, positioned, and modified. Annotation may be manually entered or generated from labels. Annotation can be stored as features in a geodatabase or as map annotation in a data frame.
label tool
In ArcMap, the tool used to display and set labeling properties for the currently active data frame. The Label Manager is accessible through the Labeling toolbar.??????
scale range
The scales at which a layer is visible on a map. Scale ranges are commonly used to prevent detailed layers from displaying at small scales (zoomed out) and to prevent general layers from displaying at large scales (zoomed in).
identify ( features )
n ArcGIS, a tool that, when applied to a feature (by clicking it), opens a window showing that feature's attributes.
structured query
use of more than one Boolean phrase
language (SQL-Structured Query Language)
A language for storing, retrieving, and editing data in a database.???
Boolean
truth value operations used for filtering an attribute query
hyperlink
A reference (link) from one point in an electronic document to another document or another location in the same document (the target). Activating the link, usually by clicking it with the mouse, causes the browser to display the target of the link.
select features tool
allows the user to select a subset of features in a layer, or records in a table.
shape field
specifies the type of feature in a layer (point, line, or polygon)
Spatial Data
Any data that can be mapped.--------Information about the locations and shapes of geographic features and the relationships between them, usually stored as coordinates and topology.
non-spatial data
Data without inherently spatial qualities, such as attributes.
join
Appending the fields of one table to those of another through an attribute or field common to both tables. A ____ is usually used to attach more attributes to the attribute table of a geographic layer.
relate
when tables are associated instead of being joined because a record in the layer attribute has many matches in the nonspatial table (a one-to-many relationship). When tables are related you can highlight records in either table to see matching records in the other.
common attribute
The attribute by which two attribute tables are joined (ex ID number
cardinality
he correspondence or equivalency between sets; how sets relate to each other. For example, if one row in a table is related to three rows in another table, the ______ is one to many.
null value
The absence of a recorded value for a field. A null value differs from a value of zero in that zero may represent the measure of an attribute, while a null value indicates that no measurement has been taken.
output feature
the resulting features from a join or a relate
location queries
selecting features by location: four spatial relationships include distance, containment, intersection, and adjacency.
distance
The measure of separation between two entities or locations that may or may not be connected, such as two points. Distance is differentiated from length, which implies a physical connection between entities or locations.
containment
A spatial relationship in which a point, line, or polygon feature or set of features is enclosed completely within a polygon.
intersection
The point where two lines cross. In geocoding, most often a street crossing.
adjacency
A type of spatial relationship in which two or more polygons share a side or boundary.
geoprocessing
A GIS operation used to manipulate GIS data. A typical geoprocessing operation takes an input dataset, performs an operation on that dataset, and returns the result of the operation as an output dataset. Common geoprocessing operations include geographic feature overlay, feature selection and analysis, topology processing, raster processing, and data conversion. Geoprocessing allows for definition, management, and analysis of information used to form decisions.
ArcToolbox
A user interface in ArcGIS used for accessing, organizing, and managing a collection of geoprocessing tools, models, and scripts.
Dissolve
A geoprocessing command that removes boundaries between adjacent polygons that have the same value for a specified attribute.---------The process of removing unnecessary boundaries between features, such as the edges of adjacent map sheets, after data has been captured
clip
A command that extracts features from one feature class that reside entirely within a boundary defined by features in another feature class.
export
o move data from one computer system to another, and often, in the process, from one file format to another.
Buffer
A zone around a map feature measured in units of distance or time. A buffer is useful for proximity analysis.
Overlays
A spatial operation in which two or more maps or layers registered to a common coordinate system are superimposed, either digitally or on a transparent material, for the purpose of showing the relationships between features that occupy the same geographic space.-----In geoprocessing, the geometric intersection of multiple datasets to combine, erase, modify, or update features in a new output dataset.
Union
A topological overlay of two or more polygon spatial datasets that preserves the features that fall within the spatial extent of either input dataset; that is, all features from both datasets are retained and extracted into a new polygon dataset.
Intersect
A geometric integration of spatial datasets that preserves features or portions of features that fall within areas common to all input datasets.-----
Geographic Coordinate System
A reference system that uses latitude and longitude to define the locations of points on the surface of a sphere or spheroid. A geographic coordinate system definition includes a datum, prime meridian, and angular unit.
Projection
A method by which the curved surface of the earth is portrayed on a flat surface. This generally requires a systematic mathematical transformation of the earth's graticule of lines of longitude and latitude onto a plane. Some projections can be visualized as a transparent globe with a light bulb at its center (though not all projections emanate from the globe's center) casting lines of latitude and longitude onto a sheet of paper. Generally, the paper is either flat and placed tangent to the globe (a planar or azimuthal projection) or formed into a cone or cylinder and placed over the globe (cylindrical and conical projections). Every map projection distorts distance, area, shape, direction, or some combination thereof.
Projected Coordinate Systems
A reference system used to locate x, y, and z positions of point, line, and area features in two or three dimensions. A projected coordinate system is defined by a geographic coordinate system, a map projection, any parameters needed by the map projection, and a linear unit of measure.
Spatial Reference
In ArcGIS 9.2 or later, the coordinate system, tolerance, and resolution used to store a spatial dataset.
Feature Class
In ArcGIS, a collection of geographic features with the same geometry type (such as point, line, or polygon), the same attributes, and the same spatial reference. Feature classes can be stored in geodatabases, shapefiles, coverages, or other data formats. Feature classes allow homogeneous features to be grouped into a single unit for data storage purposes. For example, highways, primary roads, and secondary roads can be grouped into a line feature class named 'roads.' In a geodatabase, feature classes can also store annotation and dimensions.
Multiuser geodatabase
A geodatabase managed in an RDBMS server by ArcSDE. Multiuser geodatabases can be very large and support multiple concurrent editors. They are supported on a variety of commercial RDBMS, including IBM DB2, IBM Informix, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and PostgreSQL.
Personal Geodatabase (gray)
A geodatabase that stores data in Microsoft Access. A personal geodatabase can be read simultaneously by several users, but only one user at a time can edit the same data.
Shapefile (green)
A vector data storage format for storing the location, shape, and attributes of geographic features. A shapefile is stored in a set of related files and contains one feature class.
Coverage (yellow)
A data model for storing geographic features. A coverage stores a set of thematically associated data considered to be a unit. It usually represents a single layer, such as soils, streams, roads, or land use. In a coverage, features are stored as both primary features (points, arcs, polygons) and secondary features (tics, links, annotation). Feature attributes are described and stored independently in feature attribute tables. Coverages cannot be edited in ArcGIS 8.3 and subsequent versions.
CAD file (Blue)
The digital equivalent of a drawing, figure, or schematic created using a CAD system. CAD files are the data source for CAD drawing datasets, feature datasets and feature classes. ArcGIS software-supported formats include DWG (AutoCAD), DXF (AutoDesk Drawing Exchange Format), and DGN (the default Microstation file format). A CAD file is represented in ArcCatalog with a CAD feature dataset and a CAD drawing dataset.
Layer File
In ArcGIS, a file with a .lyr extension that stores the path to a source dataset and other layer properties, including symbology.
Field
A column in a table that stores the values for a single attribute.
Domain
The range of valid values for a particular metadata element.-----
Vertex (vertices)
One of a set of ordered x,y coordinate pairs that defines the shape of a line or polygon feature.
Edge
A line between two points that forms a boundary. In a geometric shape, an edge forms the boundary between two faces. In an image, edges separate areas of different tones or colors. In topology, an edge defines lines or polygon boundaries.
Edit Sketch
In ArcMap, a temporary sketch that is used to perform a variety of tasks. Creating an edit sketch is a standard way to edit feature geometry.
Snap
n automatic editing operation in which points or features within a specified distance (tolerance) of other points or features are moved to match or coincide exactly with each others' coordinates.
Topology
In geodatabases, the arrangement that constrains how point, line, and polygon features share geometry. For example, street centerlines and census blocks share geometry, and adjacent soil polygons share geometry. Topology defines and enforces data integrity rules (for example, there should be no gaps between polygons). It supports topological relationship queries and navigation (for example, navigating feature adjacency or connectivity), supports sophisticated editing tools, and allows feature construction from unstructured geometry (for example, constructing polygons from lines).
Merge
ombining features from multiple data sources of the same data type into a single, new dataset.
Geocoding
A GIS operation for converting street addresses into spatial data that can be displayed as features on a map, usually by referencing address information from a street segment data layer.
Address locator
A dataset in ArcGIS that stores the address attributes, associated indexes, and rules that define the process for translating nonspatial descriptions of places, such as street addresses, into spatial data that can be displayed as features on a map. An address locator contains a snapshot of the reference data used for geocoding, and parameters for standardizing addresses, searching for match locations, and creating output. Address locator files have a .loc file extension. In ArcGIS 8.3 and previous versions, an address locator was called a geocoding service.
Map Template
In ArcMap, a kind of map document that provides a quick way to create a new map. Templates can contain data, a custom interface, and a predefined layout that arranges map elements, such as north arrows, scale bars, and logos, on the virtual page. Map templates have a .mxt file extension.
Layout
The arrangement of elements on a map, possibly including a title, legend, north arrow, scale bar, and geographic data.
Orientation
An object's position or relationship in direction with reference to points of the compass.
grid
In cartography, any network of parallel and perpendicular lines superimposed on a map and used for reference. These grids are usually referred to by the map projection or coordinate system they represent, such as universal transverse Mercator grid.
map elements
In digital cartography, a distinctly identifiable graphic or object in the map or page layout. For example, a map element can be a title, scale bar, legend, or other map-surround element. The map area itself can be considered a map element; or an object within the map can be referred to as a map element, such as a roads layer or a school symbol.
spatial model
A methodology or set of analytical procedures used to derive information about spatial relationships between geographic phenomena.