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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dueker's Definiion
Information system where database consists of observations on spatially distributed features, activities or events. These are definable as points, lines, and areas. Manipulates data about these to retrieve data for ad hoc queries and analyses.
Fourth Dimension
Time (creation, duration, and destruction in time)
GIS is...
1) tools for analyzing spatial data
2) info system designed for spatial data
3) approach to scientific analysis and use of spatial data
Science concerned with all aspects of earth's surface: natural/human divisions, distribution and differentiation of regions, and role of humankind in changing the face of the earth
GIS is built upon...
geography, cartography, computer science, and mathematics.
A GIS consists of at least these three things...
-spatial information
-computer-based link between them
Feature Model
Breaks mapped landscape into features into points lines and polygons.
4 Definitions of GIS
Toolbox, Information System, Approach to Science, multi-billion dollar business
Canadian GIS: 1964, early system
Harvard University ODYSSEY
Late 1960s, arc/node data structure
Globe is projected directly on a flat surface
equal area
Map projection that preserves area
Map projection that preserves local shape of features on maps
Science of measuring the size and shape of the earth and it's gravitational and magnetic field
latitude and longitude grid drawn on the map/globe. Angle determines type of projection used
Transverse Mercator Projection
Adopted by U.S. Army in 1947
Ellipse rotated in three dimensions about its shorter axis.
Coordinate System
Standardized method for assigning codes to locations so that locations can be found using the codes alone
conversion of analog maps into computer-readable form: scanning, digitizing, and field collection
U.S. Census Bureau
part of Department of Commerce
United States Geographical Survey: Part of the Department of the Interior--major provider of digital map data
chloropleth map
Shows numerical data for a group of regions by grouping data into classes and shading each class on the map.
System for color, specified as values for hue, saturation, and intensity
Hypsometric map
Map of topography involving a color sequence
Map within a map:
Either smaller to show relative location or larger to show detail
(i.e. Map of temperatures)
A graphic depiction of all or part of a geographic realm where the real-world features have been replaced with symbols in their correct spatial location at a reduced scale.
Orthophoto Map
Air photo image map; at 1:12,000, by the USGS
simultaneous contrast
tendency for colors at opposite ends of the primary scale to perceptually "jump" when placed together (red & green)
Stepped Statistical Surface
Outlines of areas are raised to a set height according to numerical value/class
Map function of GIS
Storage, Temporary communication, intermediate check of data, final report
Two Types of Maps
General Purpose and Thematic