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30 Cards in this Set

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What does the GI system consist of?
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum.
What is the main function of the GI tract?
Digestion of food.
What does the GI tract consist of?
A hollow tube - the lumen - surrounded by a layer of surface and epithelial cells called the mucosa.
What are the functions of the GI tract?
Secretion, digestion, absorption and motility.
What is digestion?
A mechanical and chemical process whereby complex foodstuffs are broken down into simpler forms that can be used the the body.
What is dyspepsia?
Heartburn
What is regurgitation?
The reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth.
What is water brash?
A reflex salivary hypersecretion.
What is dysphagia?
Difficulty in swallowing.
What is odynophagia?
Painful swallowing.
What is the most accurate way to diagnose GERD?
24 hour pH monitoring where the doctor puts a tiny tube into the esophagus that will stay there for 24 hours. While you go about your normal activities, it measures when and how much acid comes up into your esophagus. This test is useful in people with GERD symptoms but no esophageal damage. The procedure is also helpful in detecting whether respiratory symptoms, including wheezing and coughing, are triggered by reflux.
What is Bernstein's Test?
An acidic solution is infused via a tube inserted into the distal esphagus. Clients with normal esophageal mucosa experience no symptoms when acid is infused , but clients with esophagitis experience immediate heartburn.
What is a hiatal hernia?
Protusion of the stomach through esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the thorax.
What are the to main types of hernias?
Sliding and paraesophageal (rolling).
Sliding hernia.
In this most common type of hiatus hernia, the herniated portion of the stomach slides back and forth, into and out of the chest. These hernias are normally small and usually cause no problems or even symptoms.
What is a paraesophageal hernia?
With paraesophageal hernias, the gastro-esophageal junction remains where it belongs, but part of the stomach is squeezed up into the chest beside the esophagus. These hernias remain in the chest at all times. With this type of hernia, complications can occur.
What are the symptoms of a paraesophageal hernia?
-Sudden severe chest pain
-Radiating chest pain that isn't relieved by taking an antacid
-Difficulty swallowing
-Stomach pain
-Indigestion
-Nausea
-Vomiting
-Retching
Complications of paraesophageal hernias?
-Incarceration
This is when the hernia is stuck and being squeezed.
-Strangulation
This results from the lack of blood supply, leading to death of the tissues involved.
What is Achalasia?
An esophageal motility disorder in which the LES fails to relax properly with swallowing and in which the normal peristalsis of the esophagus is replaced with abnormal contractions.
Symptoms of Achalasia?
Dysphagia and regurgitation of solids, liquids, or both.
Interventions for Achalasia?
A combination of of dietary measures, pharmacologic agents, esophageal dilation and surgery are used.
What is an esophagomyotomy?
Surgical procedure for clients with achaliasia in which the LES is incised.
What is the esophagus.
A hollow, distensible muscular tube located behind the trachea that acts primarily as a conduit for food from the mouth to the stomach.
What is esophageal reflux?
The backward flow of gastrointestinal contents into the esphagus.
What are diverticula?
Sacs resulting from the herniation of esophageal mucosa and submucosa into surrounding tissue. Clients complain of dysphagia, regurgitatin, nocturnal cough, and halitosis (bad breath).
How is esophageal diverticula diagnosed?
X-ray examination and barium swallow. Endoscopy must be performed with strict care because perforation can occur.
Interventions for diverticula?
Diet therapy such as eating semisoft foods and smaller meals, and position such as sleeping with the head of the bed elevated and avoiding the recumbent position for at least 2 hours after eating. Surgery aimed at excising the diverticula and reapproximating the mucosa.
What can cause trauma to the esophagus?
Blunt injuries, chemical burns, surgery or endoscopy, or the stress of protracted severe vomiting. Can impair swallowing and nutrition.
What is gastritis?
An inflamation of the gastric mucosa (stomach lining).
What are two types of gastritis?
-Erosive (Acute gastritis, stress ulcers).
-Nonerosive -(chronic gastritis.)