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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
functions of salivary secretion
lubrication,
solvation for taste
antibacterial (lysozyme, lactoferrin & IgA)
amylase
quantity of saliva produced daily
1/2 to 1 l/day
function of amylase
hydrolyzes alpha 1-4 bonds of glucose (amylose=starch, resembles glycogen)

digest amylopectin, glycogen & amylose
concentration characteristics of saliva during slow flow
high K (so water reabsorbed)
secondary saliva-more processed
concentration characteristics of saliva during high flow
like plasma:
primary saliva- (not very processed)
Na (high)
Cl
HCO3
K (very little)
saliva secretion at acinar cells
K, HCO3, H20, Na, Cl
location of saliva transporters
duct cells
transporters and saliva processing
in duct cells
Increase K in lumen
resorb Na & Cl
components of gastric secretions
HCL
Pepsinogen
Mucus
Intrinsic Factor
(gastrin is endocrine)
4
parietal cell secretes
HCL & Intrinsic Factor
G cell secretes
Gastrin (inhibited by somatostatin)
D cell secretes
Somatostatin (inhibited by gastrin)
enteroendocrine cells in the stomach
G cell - gastrin
D cell- somatostatin
transporters in HCL secretion
K/H pump at lumen sends K into cell (drives CA to increase HCO3)
HCO3 out/Cl in
then electrochem gradient drives Cl into lumen
regulation of HCL secretion
gastrin increases
somatostatin decreases
stimulation of parietal cell
gastrin, ACh & Histimine

gastrin- G cell senses peptides, rls gastrin, acts on ECL AND parietal, (stronger signal than histimine)
Vagus stims ECL and Pariatel- get ACh stim and histimine
histimine & CCK from vagal stim
ACh
where does histamine stimulus in stomach come from
ECL
mechanism of stimulation of parietal cells
Gastrin & ACh stim Ca rls
Histimine stims Adenylyl Cyclase
product of D cell
releases somatostatin- provides negative feedback to proton pump
action of somatostatin
produced in D cell
when pH 2.5 or less
binds R on ECL to block hist rls
binds G cell to block gastrin rls
secretion of pepsinogen
secreted by Cheif cells
(stimulated by peptides)
activated by HCL and pepsin
mucus secretion
from goblet cells
80% carbohydrate
inhibits pepsin from approaching epithelials
mucus production inhibited by NSAIDs
Intrinsic Factor Secretion
made & secreted by parietals
necessary for B-12 absorption
(makes complex)
secreted with gastrin
stimulation of parietal cell
gastrin, ACh & Histimine

gastrin- G cell senses peptides, rls gastrin, acts on ECL AND parietal, (stronger signal than histimine)
Vagus stims ECL and Pariatel- get ACh stim and histimine
histimine & CCK from vagal stim
ACh
where does histamine stimulus in stomach come from
ECL
mechanism of stimulation of parietal cells
Gastrin & ACh stim Ca rls
Histimine stims Adenylyl Cyclase
product of D cell
releases somatostatin- provides negative feedback to proton pump
action of somatostatin
produced in D cell
when pH 2.5 or less
binds R on ECL to block hist rls
binds G cell to block gastrin rls
secretion of pepsinogen
secreted by Cheif cells
(stimulated by peptides)
activated by HCL and pepsin
mucus secretion
from goblet cells
80% carbohydrate
inhibits pepsin from approaching epithelials
mucus production inhibited by NSAIDs
Intrinsic Factor Secretion
made & secreted by parietals
necessary for B-12 absorption
(makes complex)
secreted with gastrin
Secretions of the pancreas
HCO3
enzymes
pancreatic enzymes
Amylase
Tripsin, Chymotrypsin, Carboxypeptidase, Elastase- zymogens
Lipase-colipase
PLA2
Cholesterol esterase-nonspecific lipase
stimulation of pancreatic secretion of HCO3
S cells sense H+ (pH> 4)
secrete secretin
increase HCO3 via cAMP on Ducts
secretory cells of pancreas
Acinars- secrete enzymes
Ducts- secrete HCO3
stimulation of pancreatic secretion of enzymes
I cells
sense aa's, peptides & FA's
secrete CCK
increase enzyme rls via IP3 on acinars
anatomical features of colon
no villi
haustra
taeniae coli
cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum
water absorption in small & large intestine
98% is reabsorbed
85% in SI
13% in LI
mechanism of water resorption
osmotic gradient- passive
Na/K ATPase at BL
draws Na in from lumen
drives CA rxn, HCO3 out/Cl in
Na & Cl increase in tissue
H2O follows
fluid input to GI
2 L food & drink
2 L gastric secretions
1.5 L (each) saliva, pancreas, intestines
.5 L bile
fluid absorption in gut
7.5 L SI
1.4 L LI
.1 L excreted in feces
mechanism of cholera toxin
constituatively activates CFTR--reverses osmotic potential
covalent modification of alpha subunit of GPCR
prevents GTP hydrolysis (to GDP)
effects of aging on digestive system
compromised nutrition

neural coordination
biochem (less enzyme/hormone, decreased sensitivity)
diminished vascular supply
inflammatory polyps associated with...
ulcerative colitis
IBD
adenoma colon polyps association with CA
>2cm, 50% are cancerous
<1 cm, 1% are cancerous
glandular in origin
polypoid carcinoma characteristics
malignant
originate from epis
colorectal cancer stages
I: submucosa
II: circ or long muscle
III: 1-4 lymph nodes
IV: metastasis
characteristics of diverticula
associated with age
herniation of colon wall
95% are in sigmoid
areas of vascular penetration cause weakness
bleeding from mechanical damage
bacteria collect