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### 30 Cards in this Set

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 symbol for not ~ symbol for biconditional <-> symbol for "for all" (upside down A) symbol for conjunction (upsidedown V) symbol for "there exists" or some (backwards E) symbol for disjunction V symbol for conditional -> s: Fish have scales r: reptiles have skin ~(backward E) s Step 1: Some fish have scales Step 2: All fish do not have scales. Rewrite to avoid ambiguity: No fish has scales. Negate the sentence: All cookies are good Some cookies are not gone. Negate the sentence: Some spiders are not poisonous. All spiders are poisonous. Negate the sentence: We have at least one used car. No cars are used. Negate the sentence: Some watches are cheaper than others. No watch is cheaper than any other watch. (Can't say "ALL watches are NOT cheaper than others" because this is ambiguous.) Negate the sentence: No pears are edible. Some pears are edible. Which method of deductive proof follows this line of reasoning? Premise 1: p -> q Premise 2: p therefore q Modus ponens Which method of deductive proof follows this line of reasoning? p q1 q2 . . qn r (conclusion) conclusion: Law of Deduction Which method of deductive proof follows this line of reasoning? Premise 1: p -> q Premise 2: q -> r Conclusion: p -> r Transitivity Which method of deductive proof follows this line of reasoning? Premise 1: p -> q Premise 2: ~q Conclusion: ~p Modus tollens Which method of deduction is based on the Contrapositive Rule? Modus tollens An argument to establish that a statement is probably true. inductive argument An argument to establish that a statement is absolutely certain. deductive What is the difference in valid and sound? with valid, the premises do NOT have to be true, you just have to be able to proceed logically from the premises to the conclusion If an argument is sound then it is valid. (true/false) true (sound arguments have true premises and valid logic) If an argument is valid then it is sound. (true/false) false (the premises also must be true) What are premises? Supporting statements that lead to a conclusion. When do you get a true result in a conjunction truth table? when both premises are true When do you get a false result in a disjunction truth table? when both premises are false When do you get a false result in a conditional truth table? when first premise is true and second premise is false When do you get a false result in a bi-conditional truth table? when either premise (but not both) is false How do negate a statement with NO qualifiers? negate the predicate (verb) How do negate a statement WITH qualifiers? negate the predicate (verb) AND switch the quantifier