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40 Cards in this Set

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Characteristics of Phylym Chordata...
a hollow dorsal neural tube
a notochord
gill slits
Characteristic of Subphylum Vertebrata
notochord is surrounded by or replaced by vertebrae.
4 characteristics of Agnathans
primitive
lacks jaw
cartilaginous skeleton
weak swimmers
3 Characteristics of a Placodermi
primitive jawed fish
armored with bony external skeleton
4 Characteristics of Chondrichthyes
well developed jaw
cartilaginous internal skeleton
bony teeth
open gill slits
4 characteristics of Acanthodii
early jawed fish
streamlined
ventral row of spines
no bony armor plates, but some internal ossification
3 characteristics of Osteichtheyes
dominant fish today
bony internal skeleton
air balder
Two Groups of Osteichtheyes are...
Actinopterygians(ray finned)
Sarcopterygians (lobe finned)
2 characteristics of Actinopterygians?
fins comprised of hard organic material (rays)
dominant today
Characteristic of Sarcopterygians and example?
pelvic and pectoral fins are fleshy and have bony central axis. Lungfish.
characteristic of tetrapods
bony limbs specialized for walking.
Two major lineages of surviving tetrapods
amphibia and amniota
characteristics of amphibia
have to lay eggs in water
possess gills early and then lungs
moist skin that aids respiration
Two groups of amniota
reptilia
synapsida
4 basic skull types of amniotes, how many and where holes are, example.
anapsida none turtles
synapsida 1 below humans
euryasida 1 above extinct
diasida 1 above 1 below lizards and dinosaurs
Two types of dinosaur hips
saurcischia (lizard)
Ornithuschia (bird)
What are the skull openings called and what are their purpose?
temporal fenestrae. They allow room for the jaw muscles to expand and for improved muscle attachment
Saurischia dinos
theropoda, sauropodomorpha
Ornithischia dinos
Stegosauria, Ankylosauria, Ornithopoda, Ceratopsia, Pachycephalosauria
theropoda
Bipedal, carnivorous. T-Rex
sauropodomorpha
long neck, brachosaurous
Stegosauria
stegosaurous
Ankylosauria
four legged. well armoured. bony plates
Ornithopoda
unarmoured, may have walked on four legs and ran on two.
Ceratopsia
Triceratops
Pachycephalosauria
Bipedalwith thichk, bony, skull dome.
Three lineages of flying tetrapods
Pterosauria, Aves, Chiroptera
Oldest bird
Archaeopteryx
5 mammal skull traits
enlarged brain case
single external nare
secondary plate for breathing and eating at the same time
single jaw bone
differentiated teeth
4 types of mammal teeth
incisors
canine
premolars
molars
difference between grazer and browser molars
grazers have flat ridged molars
browsers have crowns and cusps.
Mammal Classifications
Prototheria
Allotheria
Theria
Metatheria
Eutheria
Prototheria
primitive amniote features
lay eggs
platypus and anteater
Allotheria
Rodent-like omnivores
Metatheria
Marsupials
Eutheria
placental mammals
Characteristics of Platyrrhini
New World Monkeys
found in Central and South America
Tail used as fifth limb
Relatively short arms
lack of opposable thumb
Characteristics of Cercopithecoidea
Old World Monkeys
Found in Africa and Asia
Lack of prehensile tail
Name the epochs in the cenozoic era
paleocene, ecocene, oligocene, miocene, pliocene, pleistocene, holocene
Classification of humans
K. Animalia
P. Chordata
SP. Vertebrata
CL. Mamalia
SC. Eutheria
O. Primates
F. Hominidae
G. Homo
S. sapien