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36 Cards in this Set

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geology
study of the earth's layers
how are rocks classified?
by origin (how they are formed)
igneous
fire made, rock so hot it flows
extrusive
lava
intrusive
magma
types of granite and uses of it
mica, feldspar, quartz;countertops, tombstones
pumice
lava soap
obsidian
igneous
sedimentary rocks
made of sediments cemented together, carried by water to oceans and wind
chemical sedimentary
dissolved by water and come out of solution
examples of sedimentary rocks
rock salt, limestone, gypsum
clastic
made of fragments of preexisiting rock
metamorphic
rocks that have changed from igneous or sedimentary and packed until they become more dense.
how are metamorphic rocks formed?
high pressure and high heat
quarry
rocks are cut from the ground
fossil
used to be a living thing, a trace of an ancient organism
types of fossils
imprint, mold and cast, petrified
what is petrified?
once living matter changing to a rock
amber
Ancient tree sap
for fossils to form there must be:
no bacteria or fungus (dry, cold, buried) and no scavengers
(hard/soft) parts are easiest to preserve
hard
eras
separate periods of worldwide change
periods
divided by montain building in a particular part of the earth
epuch
separated by major climatic change
pre-cambrian
not much fossil record
paleozoic
invertebrates dominate (old life) 295 million years
messozoic
reptiles dominated "middle life" 130 million years
cenozoic
mammals dominated, "modern life" 65 million years
index fossil
used to pinpoint particular time
standard geological column
all sedimentary layers and fossils ever found on earth, organized by relative age
radioactive decay
determines absolute time
half life
decay rate at radioactive material
law of superposition
if a rock layers on top it is probably younger
magma
inside earth's crust
lava
oozed out on surface
absolute time
the time in years each event is known