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76 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How many seismograghs are needed to loccate an earthquake?
3
Where is the young rock located in a syncline rock?
in middle
When the young rock is located on top, what type of syncline is it?
anticline
What are countour lines?
lines of elevation on map
What is porosity?
the open space ground water can get into (the volume of open spaces in rock or soil)
The measure of materialsability to transmit water is called the what?
permeability
The location below the water table is called...?
the zone of saturation
This is located above the water table...?
zone of aeration
What is the water table?
it is important in predicting the productivity of wells, explaining the changes in the flow of springs and streams
The material's ability to transmit a fluid is called....?
the permeability
What is Darcey's Law?
deals with the flow of water from the head to the low point>>>
(an equation stating that groundwater discharge depends on the hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivity, and cross sectional area of an aquifer)
What are artsian wells?
where groundwater under pressure rises above the level of the aquifer
Impermeable layers that hinder or prevent water movement are called?
auitards
Permeable rock strata or sediment or sediment that transmit groundwater freely are called ....?
aquifers
The hydrolic gradient determines what?
what direction the water flows
What are the characteristic of a glacier?
erosional and drumline
What are the 7 characteristics of an erosional feature?
horns, arete, u- valley, hanging valley, cirques, truncated spurs, and roche moutonnee
What are the characteristics of glacial deposits from ice?
till, moraine, and drumlins
What are the characteristics of water-laid deposits?
eskers, deltas, outwash, stratified drift
What was the Milankovitch theory?
he worked out mathmatics of precession idea/ demonstrated glacier cylce (periods of hot and cold summers)
What are P-waves?
where waves can travel through solids, liquids , and gasses. it more of a push- pull motion
What are S-waves?
a seismic wave that can only go through solids.

(its motion is more like a if a rope is fastened at one end and shook at the other)
Where do earthquakes occur?
at different boudaries (anywhere) *usually not in the middle
Where do the deepest earthquakes occur?
in trenches/ where there is convergence (subduction zone)
Where do the shallow earthquakes occur?
anywhere
What happens to P-waves when they hit the core?
they slow up and bend into the core
What are 3 evidences that plates have moved around?
jigsaw puzzle, reptiles/mesosaurs, and glacial evidence
What did the magnetic poles position tell us?
that they diverged b/c the ocean was moving apart
What type of magnet drives the earth?
electromagnets
What is the lithosphere?
it is a rigid thickness of rockthat includes the upper mantle and the crust
What layer is below the lithosphere?
asthenosphere
What are the 4 characteristics of divergent margins?
tension spreading, ridges, rifts, and shallow earthquakes
What are the 9 characteristics of convergent margins?
compression, subduction, trenches, folded and volcanic mountains, island arcs, andes, japan, and himalayan mountains
What is angular unconformity?
an unconformity in which the older strata dip at an angele from that of the younger beds.
What differences does the solar system have?
difference is between the innerand outer planets
What type of magents are rocks?
permanent magnets
What is meant by the 7 1/2 minute quad rency?
it is the degree of longitude and latitude. >>>it is the measure in degree terms or angles from the center to the top.
What are the sequence of events for angular unconformity?
1. erosion
2. subsides (uplifted)
3. folded
How many million years had it been leading up to the Precambrian age?
540 yrs
How many years had it been, leading up to the mesozoic yr?
about 248- 250yrs
How many years had it been leading up to the mesozoic- cenozoic?
65 million yrs
What type of planets are rocky and small?
inner planets
What type of planets are large and gas rich?
outer planets
What are the names of the 4 planets that make up the inner planets?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
What are the names of the 5 planets that make up the outer planets?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto
Which outer planet has a moon that rotates in a reverse direction? what is the name of that moon?
Planet- Neptune
Moon- Triton
Which planet has a mooon named Charon?
Pluto
Which planet is made up of many small moons?
Jupiter
Where is the asteroid belt located?
between mars and jupiter
Which planet looks like it it is rolling around the sun?
Uranus
Which two planets have rings?
saturn and jupiter
In class which planet showed impact features and had wind, which in turn created dunes?
mars
Which way do planets normally rotate sround the sun?
counter clockwise and very close to came plane
What are the names of the 7-8 major and minor plates?
-Pacific
-North America
-South America
-Eurasia
-Africa
-Australia
-Antartica
-nazca, Caribbean, Phillipine,Arabian
What leads to the spreading of the sea floor?
magnetic stripes
What is the curie point?
the place where magnetism is gained or lost
What are the densities for the inner and outer planets?
Inner:4-5
Outer:1-2
What are cirques?
cut back into the face of mountains, like little slopes/dips
What are horns?
top parts(peaks) of cirques
How do drumlins start to form?
when glacier ice flows over it
How was Roche mountonnee formed?
shaped by glacier ice flowing over it...eroded
What is Carbon-14 used for?
used to see the age of a rock/ human artifacts
who was the one that came up with the idea that the continents are drifting?
Alfred Wegner
What part of the earth do earthquakes occur?
in the lithosphere
What is precession?
the angle of the tilt of earth compared to it being straight up
What is eccentricity
the more eliptical the earth is, the more one side is further away from the sun
What does the pressure surface determine?
the height to which water will rise
What is the cone of depression?
a depression in the water table that often forms around a pumping well
What is wave refraction?
a change in direction of waves as they enter shallow water
What is the capillary fringe?
a relatively narrow zone at the base of the zone of aeration.

*here the water rises from the water table in tiny threadlike openings between grains of soil or sediment
Where are most geologic names derived from?
scientists or locations
Which radioactive dating is used for old rocks?
Uranium
What is a fault?
where they break
What is a normal fault? reverse fault? transformed fault?
Normal: pulling apart
Reverse: push together
Transform: ridges are spreading
what is a mass spectrometer and seismogragh?
Mass spectrometer: detects things in a rock (crystals, minerals, etc)

Seismogragh: reads intensity of a seismic wave (which are caused by earthquakes)
What is radio activity?
where the original decays and decreases