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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sedimentary Rocks Are:
products of mechanical and chemical weathering of pre-existing rocks
Sedimentary Rocks are important for Economic Reasons because they may contain:
-petrol and natural gas
-sources of iron, aluminum, and manganese
-natural fertilizers
-material for concrete and bitumen
Types of Sedimentary Rocks:
-Clastic (Detrital)
The three geologic fluids:
wind, water, ice
Reefs are found in what kind of environment?
Clear, warm water with light penetration and normal salinity
Three Types of Sedimentary Environments:
-Continental (stream erosion, wind, glaciers, wind)
-Marine (200 meters to continental shelves)
-Transitional (tidal flatts, lagoons, deltas)
Metamorphic Rocks:
transition of one rock into another due to extreme heat and/or pressure
Contact metamorphism:
Differential Stress:
unequal stress in different directions
The temprature of critical water:
greater than 273 degrees celcius
Foliated Rocks Include:
-Slate, Schist, Gneiss, Phylite
Non-Foliated Rocks Include:
Quartzite, Marble, Anthracite, Metabasalt
Law of Superposition:
Original Horizontality (oldest to youngest on top of one another)
Concordant Age Vs Discordant Age:
Con- two or more similiar age determinations for same material
Dis- 2 or more disimiliar age determinations for same material

(same power ie: 10 to the 4th and 10 to the 4th)
all changes in the original form and/or size of a rock body
force applied to a given area
Compressional Stress
shortens rock body
Tensional Stress
elongate or pull apart rock body
lithostatic/hydroelastic stress
change in size
Differential Stress
change in shape
Shear Stress
produces motion similiar to slippage
Factors that influence the type of rock deformity
- temp
- confining pressure
- rock type
- time
An Earthquake Is:
the vibration of the earth produced by the rapid release of energy caused by sudden change in conditions
Stress Versus Strain
stress is the force changuing the object, while strain is the resulting change
change location
Change orientation
Change Shape
Change Volume
The Place where Rock breaks inside the earth is called:
surface on earth directly above focus:
the comparitively thin outer skin that ranges from 2mi to 40mi
a solid rocky shell that extends to depths of 1800 mi
Outer Core
Mostly Fluid
Inner Core
Iron and Nickel depth of 2161 miles
In Oceanic Crusts:
deep-sea sediments, basaltic pillow lavas, sheeted dikes, layered gabbro
Relative Dating:
use of fossils
Absolute Dating:
using age, exact numbers
the earth is how many years old?
4.6 billion
volcanoes that form on ocean floor
Which waves do NOT reach the other side of the globe after an earthquake?
S waves do not transmit, whereas P waves do
rock of the crust and upper mantle are floating in Gravitational Balance