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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
minerals are:
natural solids with a regular crystal structure and chemical
composition.
most of the minerals in the earth's crust are:
silicates
the three major rock categories:
igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
two main types of waves produced by an earthquake
body waves, surface waves
compression and tension produce:
vertical movement along faults
three types of plate boundaries
convergent, divergent, and transform.
lithosphere
the crust and upper mantle. rigid, forms plates
who developed the theory of continental drift?
Alfred Wagener
What evidence confirmed seafloor spreading? Be brief but to the point
Reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field are preserved in ocean-floor basalt, as
matching patterns across the mid-oceanic ridge. The youngest ocean-floor
basalt is at the ridge.
Distinguish between Earth’s crust, lithosphere, asthenosphere, and mantle
Earth’s crust overlies mantle – distinguished by composition: oceanic crust is
basaltic composition and continental crust is “granitic” composition.
Earth’s lithosphere overlies asthenosphere – distinguished by rock
properties/behavior/strength: lithosphere is more-rigid; asthenosphere is moreplastic/
easily deformed.
What are the main types of lithospheric plate boundaries in terms of relative
motions? Provide a real example of each (by name or location).
* rift (or spreading) zones: Mid-Atlantic ridge
* subduction zones: Cascadia subduction zone
* continental collision zones: India against Asia (Himalayas)
* transform faults: San Andreas Fault
What does oceanic lithosphere consist of and how thick is it?
* Earth’s crust and uppermost mantle (basalt over peridotite)
* about 100 km
Along which type of lithospheric plate boundary are earthquakes common?
* convergent, divergent, and transform
Along which type(s) of lithospheric plate boundary are andesite stratovolcanoes
common? Provide an example.
continent – ocean plate collision (Cascadia subduction zone/ Cascade volcanoes)
What is the approximate highest frequency of vibration (of back and forth shaking) in
earthquakes?
* 20-30 cycles/second
Which type of earthquake waves shake with the largest amplitudes (largest range of
motion)?
* Surface waves
What is meant by the “elastic rebound theory”?
* Rocks across a fault are stressed and bent elastically. Ultimately they fracture during
an earthquake and the two sides straighten out, leaving them offset across the fault.
What does the Richter Magnitude Scale depend on?
* maximum amplitude of earthquake waves on a seismograph (of a specific type)
In addition to ground motion along a fault and shaking of a building, what types of
ground failure can lead to severe damage of a building?
* liquefaction – compaction and flow of the ground, from rearrangement from loose
packed grains to closer-packed grains.
* quick clays – clays arranged as “a house of cards” can collapse and flow if shaken.
Why do the floor or deck beams of parking garages and bridges sometimes fail
and fall during an earthquake?
* The ends of the beams rest loosely on ledges to permit heat expansion. Flexing of the
support posts can pull the beams off their ledges.
What is a seismic gap, and what is its significance?
* A part of a fault that has not had recent earthquakes, even though adjacent parts have
had earthquakes.
* That part of the fault may be next to break in an earthquake.
What is the nature of the major fault boundary or boundaries in the westernmost
United States?
* San Andreas Fault, a strike-slip fault in most of California
* Cascadia subduction zone just offshore of Oregon, Washington, and southwestern
Canada.
Where are three other significant and active earthquake zones in the continental United
States and southern Canada?
* “Intermountain Seismic Belt” (or east edge of the Basin and Range of Utah,
southeastern Idaho, to southern Montana)
* New Madrid fault zone (or NE Arkansas, SE Missouri, western Tennessee and western
Kentucky.
* Eastern South Carolina, eastern New England to southern Quebec.
The North Anatolian Fault in Turkey caused more than 30,000 deaths in 1999. What
North American Fault is it similar to and in what way?
* Similar to the San Andreas Fault: in length, rate of movement (or size of earthquakes),
and the nature of motion (strike-slip motion)
ION
an atom w/ an electron surplus or deficit (charged atom)
CATION
less electrons than protons (+)
ANION
more electrons than protons (-)
IGNEOUS
formed from crystallization of molten rock (magma)
SEDIMENTARY
from the compaction, and cementing of sediments or precipitation out of water.
METAMORPHIC
transformation of minerals in pre-existing rocks
PLUTON
a body of intrusive rock
MAFIC
igneous rock. Low amounts of Silica, dark in color.
INTERMEDIATE
igneous rock. more silica in magma, gray color
FELSIC
from magma w/ >62% silica. light color
age of earth
4.6 billion yrs.
oceanic crust v. continental crust
OC- mafic rock, 5-10km thick, created from and recycled into mantle. CC- intermediate and felsic rock. 10-70 km thick. less dense
hot spots
rising plumes of mantle. not part of plate techtonics... plates move over hotspot, creating chains of volcanoes.
subduction zones
cooling asthenosphere sinks, one plate subducts under another. crust and sediments in sinking plate release water. Asthenosphere in overlying parts is fluxed, and melts.
p waves
primary. a train of compressions and expansions
s waves
secondary. slower, arrive later. up/down wriggling motion
earthquake intesity is based on what scale?
Mercalli