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10 Cards in this Set

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Apartheid
the policy of racial separateness that directed the separate residential and work spaces for white, blacks, coloureds, and Indians in South Africa for nearly 50 years. It was abolished when the African National Congress came to power in 1994.
-separation of whites and blacks in South Africa that ended in 1994. Nelson Mandela was a key figure that ended it and who was black.
Berlin Conference
- the 1884 conference that divided Africa into European colonial territories. The boundaries created in Berlin satisfied European ambition but ignored indigenous cultural affiliations. Many of Africa’s civil conflicts can be traced to ill-conceived territorial divisions crafted in 1884.
-Main European powers divided Africa to control those areas (1884). Languages are still divided today.
Desertification-
the spread of desert conditions into semiarid areas owing to improper management of the land.
- Desert expanding in the Sahel region due to deforestation and overgrazing. Another big reason for it is the misapplication of fertilizers from western technology that doesn’t work.
Great Escarpment
a landform that rims southern Africa from Angola to South Africa. It forms where the narrow coastal plains meet the elevated plateaus in an abrupt break in elevation.
- Africa sits on a plateau, which makes it difficult to export minerals and other goods. i.e. The coast of Angola drops off as a cliff.
Kleptocracy
A government that is so corrupt, it is systematic. Most Africans under this type of government. A lot of these governments are a dictatorship. Government bureaucrats siphon off a huge percentage of the country’s wealth.
- Former President Mobutu of the Dominican Republic of the Congo was a kleptocrat.
Pastoralists
nomadic and sedentary peoples who rely upon livestock (especially cattle, camels, sheep, and goats) for their sustenance and livelihood.
-Nomads living off their livestock.
Physiological density
a population statistic that relates the number of people in a country to the amount of arable land.
-A lot of people living in a small are, even if there’s a lot o land. i.e. Egyptians living along the Nile and not anywhere else.
Refugee
person who flees his or her country because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on race, ethnicity, religion, ideology, or political affiliation.
- In 2003, Sudean had the largest number of refugees (4.8 million), followed by the DRC (3.2 million) and then Uganda (1.4 million). They flee to places like the Netherlands where there are a lot of refugee camps.
Sahel
- the semidesert region at the southern fringe of the Sahara, and the countries that fall within this region, which extends fro Senegal to Sudan. Droughts in the 1970’s and early 1980’s caused widespread famine and dislocation of population.
- region becoming desert that surrounds the Sahara
Swidden
also called “slash-and-burn agriculture.” A form of cultivation in which forested or brushy plots are cleared of vegetation, burned, and then planted to crops, only to be abandoned a few years later as soil fertility declines.
- type of agriculture system of rotating between different areas of trees, cutting them down, plant crops, harvesting them, and then moving onto another region. These areas generally have oxisol soils.