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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the basic unit of a DNA molecule is the
nucleotide
which types of proteins can be found in chromatin
histones and nonhistones
in the watson-crick model of DNA, the polynucleotide chains are:
oreiented in opposite directions
the term describing bases that pair with each other is
complementary base pairing
the two polynucleotide strands of DNA are connected to each other by
hydrogen bonds
RNA differs from DNA in
single, sugars, pyrimidine bases
the sugar in DNA is
deoxyribose
nucleosomes are composed of
histone proteins in a bead wrapped by DNA
DNA replication occurs in
S phase
DNA is made up of a linear array of
nucleotides
in humans, ________ functions to transfer genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
mRNA
a nucleotide is made up of
sugar, phosphate, nitrogenous base
in the structure of DNA, the total amount of ______ equals the total amount of _______
adenine & guanine
thymine & cytosine
which of the three pats of a nucleotide lies betwen the other two
sugar
all amino acids are characterized by
amino group
carboxyl group
R group
the synthesis of an amino acid chain requires
formation of peptide bond
the primary structure of a protein is
amino acid sequence
f the genetic code is a triplet, how many different amino acids could be coded by repeating RNA polymerase composed of UA (UAUAUAUA ..)
2
what is the fate of the introns in pre-mRNA
spliced
2 tRNA molecules occupy the P and A site in a ribsome

theamino acids they carry are joined by a peptide bond

what is the very next event that occurs
ribosome moves one codon down the mRNA causing tRNA in the A site to translocate
the tRNA molecule has been called an adaptor molecule because
recognizes both mRNA and all amino acids
the most complete list of components needed for initiaion of translation includes
small ribosomal subunit
tRNA with anticodons UAC
mRNA
the quarternary level of protein structure involves
interactions with other polypeptide chains
where in the 5' flanking region does RNA polymerase specificaly bind?
TATA box
the transcribed sequences that are translated are the
exons
proteins have many critical functions in the human body

some of the functions include
transporting oxygen
hormonal signaling
carryig out enzymatic reactions
destroying and invading bacteria
why is semi-conservative replication important
ensures copy of the original is passed to each of the new DNA strands
what are purines?

A T C U G
A, G
what is not true of ATP
loses all 3 phosphate groups to transfer energy
what types of bonds temporarily form between the RNA nucleotides and the DNA template strand
hydrogen bonds
if moving from the 5'---3' direction in the promotor region of a gene, what would be the correct sequence
enhancer-CAAT-TATA
where does RNA polymerase bind
TATA box
what occurs when translocation reaches the termination stage
the ribosomal units disconnect
mRNA released
polypeptide chain is disconnected from the last tRNA
after RNA polymerase binds to the promotor sequence and causes the adjacent double strand DNA to unwind, either can be used as the template for RNA formation

t/f
true
there are no tRNAs with anticodons complementary to stop codons

t/f
true
all the sequences in a transcribed mRNA are used in translation

t/f
false
the processing of RNA takes place in the cytoplasm

t/f
false
all codons are triplet codons which specify amino acids in the polypeptide chain

t/f
true
the 3-nucleotide sequences in DNA that are transcribed into mRNA codons are the same 3 nucleotides as the anticodons which bind to those codons

t/f
false
during processing a guanine cap is attached to the mRNA to aid in attachment to the ribosome

t/f
true
both strands of DNA can be transcribed simultaneousy

t/f
true
a single mutation in a gene will cause a genetic disorder

t/f
false
if a stop codon is never reached during translation, the amino acid chain will end with a long chain of phenylalanines connected together

t/f
false
after _____ and _____ RNA moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
maturation
splicing
coiled, helical, or pleated regions of proteins fold backon themselves to form ____ structure
tertiary structure
the codon ____ serves as the initiator codon and also codes for the amino acid _____
AUG, methionine
tRNA binds to the mRNA via their ______
anticodons
protein vesicles must pass through the _______ before leaving the cell
golgi apparatus
a functional, 3-D polypeptide is a(n)
protein
retroviruses such as HIV are the only known entitles capable of making a DNA strand by reading a complementary RNA strand

this is called "reverse ______"
transcription