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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A & G - larger
C & T - smaller
1. DNA unwinds

2. Leading strand is continuously synthesized 5' --> 3'

3. Lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously in 5' --> 3' direction. The short segments formed are Okazaki fragments.

4. DNA polymerase synthesizes the strands.
DNA is translated into mRNA. It leaves the nucleaus to the cytoplams.
mRNA codons are translated into a sequence of amino acids which form proteins.

tRNA brings the amino acid to the ribosomes in the correct sequence.

Ribosomes are made up of two subunits, a small and a large. There are three binding sites: P, A, and E.

A - incoming amino acid
P - growing peptide chain
E - tRNA is released
Failure of homologous chrom to seperate during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to seperate during meiosis II.

Causes 3 copies of a chromosome (trisomy) or 1 copy (monosomy).
Down's syndrome
Trisomy on chrom. 21
(bacterial genetic variance)

Plasmid is incorporated into the chrom. through recombination.
(bacterial genetic variance)

The transfer of genetic material between two bacteria.

F+ cells join with F- cells to make them F+ as well. They trnasfer the F factor to the F- cells.

Hfr cells are those cells where the sex factor has become integrated into the genome.
Parts of bacterial chrom. are packaged into a phage, and when they infect other bacteria, they introduce the new genetic information.
Gene regulation
-lets proks control their metabolism

-Includes structural genes, operator gene, and promoter gene.
Operator gene
this is the repressor binding site
Promoter gene
this is the binding site for RNA polymerase
Regulator gene
codes for the repressor molecule, which binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase from transcribing
Inducible systems
-require the presence of a substance (the inducer) for transcription to occur.

-repressor binds to operator when there is no INDUCER around.

-inducer binds to the repressor, and thus it cannot bind to operon and transcription occurs.

-When substrate is present, enzymes are transcribed.
Repressible systems
-Repressor is inactive until it combines with corepressor.

-Then, it binds to operator and transcription does not occur.

-Corepressors are often the end products.