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46 Cards in this Set

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Gregor Mendel
Did work with passing of genetic traits from one generation to the next. Worked with the garden pea
Stamens
Produces pollen
Carpel
Eggs are found at the base of this structure
Monohybrid Cross
Involves one trait. For example seed shape.
Dominant Character
A character that always appeared in the F1 generation
Recessive Character
Character that disappears in the F1 generation. This character can reappear in future generations
Phenotypic ratio
Ratio of the different physical characteristics that the organism has
Phenotype
Physical characteristic of an organism
Principle of Segregation
Every organism has two factors that control a certain characteristic. These factors seperate in the formation of gametes
Gene in Mendelian Genetics
an inherited factor that determines a biological trait of an organism
allele
one of two or more alternative forms of a gene
Genotype
Sum total of all of the genes in the organism
Homozygous
shown by same allele, either dominant or recessive
heterozygous
one copy of each allele present. One dominant and one recessive
Punnett Square
shows all possible geontypes of a generation
Principle of Independent Assortment
The members of a pair of traits are distributed or assorted independently when the gametes are formed
Independent Traits
Traits whose genes are present on non homolygous chromosomes
Rule Of Probablility
The chance that a number of independent events will occur together is equal to the product of the chances that each event will occur seperately
Test Cross
A genetic cross in which an unknown genotype is crossed with an individual which is homozygous recessive
Incomplete Dominance
Both alleles should end up being expressed
Autosomes
22 pairs of chromosomes not used in sex determination
Nondisjunction
Primarily prominent in females. The failure of homolygous chromosomes to seperate at meiosis
Superfemale
XXX- sterile and suffer from mental retardation
Turner Syndrome
X- Short in stature and the sex organs don't develop. Lack secondary sex characteristics
Klinefelters Syndrome
XXY- Phenotypically male with female contours
Sex linked traits
traits whose genes are present on the x chromosome
Red Green Color Blindness
Males have a higher chance of it. A sex linked recessive trait
Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)
Caused by nondisjunction. Short in stature with a degree of retardation. Causes heart and respiratory problems
Mutation
Sudden permanent change in genetic material. A majority are dangerous
Muscular Dystrophy
Caused by a single recessive mutation. Results in deterioration of muscles
Codon
Triplet set of bases specifying an amino acid. There are 64 of them
Stop Codons
Tell you stop reading a message. Do not represent an amino acid
Gene
sequence of bases in DNA that code for a particular functional polypeptide
Transcription
the enzymatic process by which the base sequence in DNA is copied into a complementary copy of RNA
Promoter
infront of where process of transcription starts. RNA polymerase attaches here.
Translation
The enzymatic process in which the base sequence in RNA is used to specify the sequence of amino acids in a protein
1. mRNA
2. Ribosome
3. Variety of tRNA
4. Copies of all 20 amino acids
5. Various enzymes and factors
Things needed to carry out translation
Anticodon
Series of three unpaired codons
Initiation
brings everyting together to start the process
Elongation
Enlarge the protein by adding amino acids. Largest part of protein synthesis
Termination
At the end, protein is completely made. Take apart everything started at initiation.
P site
Peptide site
A site
Amino Acid Site
Translocation
shifting of ribosome one codon to the right
Internal Fertilization
fertilization that occurs inside the female
external fertilization
fertilization that occurs outside the male or female. Example frogs