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30 Cards in this Set

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What does DNA stand for, and what chemical bases does it contain?
Deoxyribonucleic acid.

The info stored in DNA is made up of:

Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Thymine

A and T bind and G and C bind. Rich in nitrogen
Central Dogma of DNA
DNA from nucleus unzips and TRANSCRIPTED into RNA.

RNA moves outside the nucleus where it forms a complex with 2 ribosome subunits

As ribosomes move along the RNA strand, tRNA assembles amino acids

3 Nucleotides codes for 1 amino acid!
What can violate the Central Dogma of DNA?
Viruses!

Have nucleic acid core composed of RNA which contains a reverse transcriptase enzyme violating the Central Dogma of DNA

~Creates DNA from the viral RNA inside the cell of host
~Cancer making viruses common in this group
Phenotype
The physical characteristics or what the organism looks like
Genotype
What the genes say. Not all genetic info is expressed in the form of phenotype, therefore, genotype gives us information about which genes the organism has
Dominant trait
A gene where the phenotype is exressed even if only one copy of the gene is present
Recessive trait
A gene whee 2 copies of a gene is required for phenotype expressions
Allele
Another term for a gene
Pure Breed
A line that breeds true for a trait

(Two scotties will never produce a Great Dane
F1
1st generation cross breeding off 2 different pure breed lines
F2
2nd generation of cross breeding of 2 different pure breed lines
Incomplete Dominance
When traits seem to blend together (Red plant and white plant makes pink plants
Homozygous
Having 2 of the same copies of genes (2 recessive genes or 2 dominant genes)
Heterozygous
Having 1 dominant and 1 recessive gene
Mitosis
Tightly controlled series of events leading to cell division. 1 cell produces an exact duplicate of itself
What is the goal of mitosis?
100% faithful replication. Mutation is a normal part of cell division, but ideally want exact copies!
Laws of segregation
Diploid cells - 1 set comes from the mother, the other set from the father. These genes will segregate (undergo miosis, and diploid cell becomes 4 haploid, then get jumbled up)
Laws of independant assortment
Genes are randomly passed on. Undergo meiosis and go throuogh random assortment

Can predict what the animal is going to look like based on what the parents genotypes are.
Hair length gene
FGF5 gene. Long hair is recessive (l), short hair is dominant (L)
Phaeomelanin
Orange
Eumelanin
Black
Synapsis
Occurs only in MEIOSIS and leads to the increase in genetic diversity. Crossover occurs
What is the goal for cell division
Faithful reproduction, exact copy to avoid mutations
What is the purpose of interphase?
growth, maturation and preparation for mitosis
What is the end result of mitusis
2 exact copies
G1
1st phase in interphase, cell development and growth
S phase
DNA synthesis phase. Cell is a tetraploid in this stage, getting ready for division. Dangerous time as DNA is uncoiling
G2
Last stage before going into mitosis. Ensures everything is ready to go and no errors have occured (proteins check to see if cell is ready)
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid. The molecule of heritance. This is a polymer and determines who you are and every protein you will make. 1 cell has 3 meters of DNA.

Forms into chains: phosphate backbone with a purine base
Semilparous
Only give birth once in their lifetime