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16 Cards in this Set

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blue and white selection
for bacteria carrying plasmids with the inserted DNA

not all bacteria in white will have the gene
(blue)plasid contains a gene for enzyme giving blue color in presence of substrate
(white)insertion disrupts the enzyme gene- so no blueness in bacteria
diabetes
type 1: no insulin produced (insulin-dependant); may be inherited; result of damage to B cells producing insulin

type 2: insulin produced, but fails to function (non-insulin dependent); mature-onset
diabetes solution
-tissue implants (stem cells) to replaced damaged B cells in pancreas
-insulin implants
-insulin cocktails with different variants with varying legnths of activity
GE in plants
1. prevent expression of gene by introduce antisense RNA
2. use bacteria as carrier of engineered gene into new host
3. particle bombardment
transgenic plants
-dicots (2 leaflets per seed) use Ti (tumor inducing) plasmids to deliver DNA into plant cell
-monocots (1 leaflet per seed) introduce directly by particle bombardment or electroporation, where no cell wals
cloning technologies
microinjection
nuclear transfer from embryonic cells
nuclear transfer from modified cells
Tracey
transgenic, 'pharming'
planted genes into Tracey when she was embryo, produced protein in her milk
use of microinjection
microinjection
use fertilized egg as recipient (in vitro)
deliver DNA with direct injection (into one of pronuclei)
modified fertilized egg placed into surrogate psuedo-preg. mother
Megan and Morag
cloned from embryo cells by nuclear transfer

genes were result of embryo cells that had been cultured in lab for several months (genes not modified)
Dolly
not genetically modified, a clone

transferred DNA of the donor to an unfertilized egg from which nuclei had been removed
Polly
cloned sheep with human gene
(transgenic, produced by nuclear transfer)

during nuclear fusion, add or modify genes
Tetra
split embryo, artifically created identical twins

@ 8 cell stage, split into 4 embryos
gene therapy
somatic: treat somatic cells only, illness still in next generation
germ-line: fix @ embryo stage, correction transmitted to next generation; difficult
in vitro
cells removed from body, altered than replaced
in vivo
fix gene directly inside the body
gene therapy for SCID
remove white blood cells, infect with retrovirus/ culture cells; infuse cells back into body

needs repititve transfusions