Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/54

Click to flip

54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Synapsin
Anchors synaptic vesicles to the cystoskeleton for storage - has to be phosphorylated to release them for synaptic transmission.
Rab3A
Guides released vesicles to dock at the active zone in a synapse.
Synaptotagmin
A molecule on vesicle membranes that when bound to Ca2+ allows them to dock to the plasma membrane's active site.
Glycine
Inhibitory CNS neurotransmitter; opens Cl- channels and prevents opening of voltage-gated channels.
GABA
Major inhibitory neurotransmitter at multiple synapses in both brain and SC
Ecl for mammalians
-70
VGluT
specific transporter for Glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles
mGluR2
Glutamate autoreceptor for feedback inhibition of synthesis and release at Glutamatergic neurons
System activated by NE
reticular activating system
How many types of glutamate uptake receptors for inactivation
5 - all work by sodium cotransport
Things in the CELL
K
Acid
Protein
Phosphates
Things in the ECF
NaCl
Ca
Glucose
What gives ion channels selectivity?
P loops - 5 amino acids facing inner pore
Mechanical event that opens ion channels:
Movement of Pos Arg residues on S4 Gate to outside
-makes inside of memb pos
-makes outside of memb neg
How to close a Na channel:
Hinged Gate - loop blocks the hole
How to close a K channel:
Ball and Chain - amino terminus swings up to plug the hole with its positive charge.
Contributions to the Em:
95% = K diffusion
5% = Na/K Atpase
How Na/K Pump works:
3 Na out
2 K in
Net neg charge on inside
Ultrafiltration
Reverse osmosis - the movement of water up its concentration gradient due to hydrostatic force.
Edema
-RH or LH failure
-Loss of plasma proteins
-Renal failure
-Brain damage
Dehydration
-Hypovolemia
-Hypotension
-Cholera
-Diabetes insipidus
-Hyperglycemia
Oubain
noncompetetive inhibitor of Na/K ATPase - prevents K binding
Mechanism of Oubain:
1. Inhibit Na/K Pump
2. Sodium accumulates in cell
3. Sodium/Ca exchanger stops working b/c no gradient for Na
4. Ca accumulates in SR and increased contraction force
Botox
prevents neuromuscular junction release of NT by inhibiting SNAREs
Nerve gas
inhibits acetylcholinesterase - no stop of neuromusc transmsn.
DHPR
Dihydropyridine receptor - the Voltage gated Ca channel on muscle cells within the T-tubule
RyR
Ryanidine receptors - Calcium gated calcium channels in the SR - activated by the calcium that came in via DHPR rec on cell surface
Curare
blocks AcH receptors so no EPP is generated at the NMJ
Neostigmine
-action
-treatment for
Anti-AChesterase - keeps it around longer
-treats myasthenia gravis
Malignant hyperthermia
SR channels fail to close - Ca leaks out; constant contraction; generates lots of heat and increased metabolism.
Cause of malignant hyperthermia:
Genetic - induced by Anesthesia
4 Ways to change contractile force in a skeletal muscle:
1. Length-tension relationship
2. Summation
3. Tetany
4. Fatigue
2 Types of summation:
1. Frequency (temporal)
2. # motor units (quantel)
What does the Length-tension curve tell?
Longer length = more passive F
Active F goes to zero if too long.
What does the Force-velocity curve tell?
The larger the load (force) the slower velocity
The lighter the load the faster velocity.
Can you change the Force/Velocity curve?
For skeletal: no
For cardiac: yes - via vagal versus sympathetic stim
Fast muscle fibers
-White
-Glycolytic
-Extensive SR
Slow muscle fibers
-Oxidative
-Myoglobin
-Red
-Extensive blood supply
What type of muscle is tonic?
Aorta
What type of muscle is phasic?
Jejunum
What stimulates aorta?
NE
What stimulates jejunum?
AcH
What inhibits aorta?
AcH
What inhibits jejunum?
NE
What is an EMG
Electromyography - changes in electrical signal allow you to see recruitment of muscle fibers
What happens to a skeletal muscle when you increase voltage with fixed resistance?
Current changes because you recruit more motor units
What is motor unit recruitment?
Quantel summation
What's the other type of summation?
Frequency summation
What is frequency summation?
Decreasing the time between two impulses so that they add together to make one big impulse.
What is Delay Time?
Time between release of Ca from SR and the actual release of Troponin from Actin - about 8-10 ms
What was the cause of muscle fatigue if you see fast recovery?
-Glycogen depletion
-K+ buildup in ECF (depolarizing)
What causes small motor unit fatigue?
Loss of calcium
What fibers fatigue first?
Fast twitch - run out of glycogen first and can't do oxidative metabolism
3 Types of Calcium channels:
N type - neurons
L type - Atria/ventricles
T type - SA and AV nodes