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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Immediate relief of acute abdominal pain can indicate what?
The abdominal aorta bifurcates at which level vertebrae?
4th or 5th lumbar vertebrae
Which landmark are all abdominal incisions based from?
anterior superior iliac spine
What is Poupart's ligament?
aka the inguinal ligament
What is the origin of viseral pain?
abdominal organs
What is the cause of viseral pain?
hollow structures become painful when they contract forcefully or when they become distended
What are characteristics of visceral pain?
• poorly localized
• usually begins as dull pain
• associated with N/V, pallor, & diaphoresis (when it becomes more intense)
What is the origin of parietal pain?
parietal peritoneum
What is the cause of parietal pain?
• direct irritation of the parietal peritoneum
• inflammation
What are characteristics of parietal pain?
• precisely localized
• usually severe from onset
• intensifies with movement
Where can duodenal pain refer to?
back and right shoulder
Where can pancreatic pain refer to?
back and left shoulder
Where can pain from acute cholecystitis refer to?
• back
• flank
• right shoulder
What are causes of a large convex abdomen?
• fat
• fat growth (malignancy)
• feces
• fetus
• fibroid tumor
• flatus
• fluid
What is a diastasis recti abdominus?
• when a ridge is present that separates the rectus abdominal muscles
• caused by:
- increased intra-abdominal pressure
- marked obesity
- pregnancy
Visceral peristalsis is indicative of what?
What is a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule?
nodule in the umbilicus secondary to intra-abdominal cancer
What is borborygmi?
normal, hyperactive, gurgling sound heard on auscultation
What are some causes of hypoactive bowel sounds?
• electrolyte imbalance
• gangrene
• inflammation
• non-mechanical obstruction
• peritonitis
What are causes of hyperactive bowel sounds?
• diarrhea
• gastroenteritis
• laxative use
• subsiding ileus
What is a venous hum and what causes it?
• a continuous pulsing or fibrillary sound
• presence in the periumbilical area is secondary to portal vein obstruction
What are causes of an enlarged liver on palpation?
• congestive heart failure
• cirrhosis
• cyst
• cancer
• encephalopathy
• hepatitis
Enlarged palpable kidneys are secondary to what?
• hydronephrosis
• neoplasms
• polycystic disease
The absence of bile in the vomitus is a feature of what?
pyloric stenosis
Recurrent vomiting of bile-stained fluid is a typical early sign of what?
proximal small bowel obstruction
How does the presentation of acute salpingitis differ from acute appendicitis?
• patients w/ salpingitis have:
- longer history of pain (often related to menstrual cycle)
- higher fever
- bilateral pelvic signs
- markedly elevated WBC count