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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Experiment
an observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions obtained
Law
a concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity of nature
Hypothesis
a tentative explanation of some regularity of nature
Theory
a tested explanation of basic natural phenomena
Mass
the quantity of matter in a material
Matter
whatever occupies space and can be percieved by our senses
Law of Conservation of Mass
the total mass remains constant during a chemical change/reaction

Mass In = Mass Out
Solid
-fixed volume
-fixed shape
-low particle motion
Liquid
-fixed volume
-no fixed shape
Gas
-no fixed volume
-no fixed shape
-high particle motion
Plasma
-exists at extremely high temperatures
-no fixed shape
-no fixed volume
-very high particle motion
-collection of charged particles, breaks apart into ions

Ex. the sun, lightening bolts, fluorescent lights, fire, the Northern Lights
Bose-Einstein Condensate
-exists at extremely low temperatures
-fixed volume
-fixed shape
-very low particle motion
-matter condenses on itself, no single atoms
Physical Change
a change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity

Ex.
-changes of state (solid, liquid gas)
-dissolving one material in another
Chemical Change/Reaction
a change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into a new kind of matter or several new kinds of matter
Signs of a Chemical Change/Reaction
-gaseous product
-color change
-formation of a precipitate
Physical Property
a characteristic that can be observed for a material without changing its chemical identity

Ex.
-physical state
-melting point
-color
Chemical Property
a characteristic of a material involving its chemical change

Ex.
-iron reacts with oxygen to produce rust
Substance
a kind of matter that cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical process

Ex.
-Element
-Compound
Element
a substance that cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction into simpler substances

See the Periodic Table for all known elements.
Compound
a substance composed of two of more elements chemically combined
Law of Definite Proportions

aka

Law of Constant Composition
a pure compound, whatever its source, always contains definite or constant proportions of the elements by mass
Mixture
a material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances
Heterogeneous Mixture
a mixture that consists of physically distinct parts, each with different properties
Homogeneous Mixture

aka

Solution (in liquid form)
a mixture that is uniform in its properties
Colloid
a heterogeneous mixture that can seem like a homogeneous mixture

Ex. when shaken it looks homogeneous, after sitting for a while it separates into a heterogeneous mixture
Precision
the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quanitity
Accuracy
the closeness of a single measurement to its true value
Exact Number
a number that arises when you count items or sometimes when you define a unit

Ex. 9 coins in a bottle, 12 inches in a foot
Fahrenheit

Water Boils: ?
Room Temperature: ?
Water Freezes: ?
common temperature scale in the United States

Water Boils: 212
Room Temperature: 68
Water Freezes: 32
Celsius

Water Boils: ?
Room Temperature: ?
Water Freezes: ?
temperature scale in general scientific use

Water Boils: 100
Room Temperature: 20
Water Freezes: 0
Kelvin

Water Boils: ?
Room Temperature: ?
Water Freezes: ?
SI (International Standard) unit of temperature

Water Boils: 373
Room Temperature: 293
Water Freezes: 273
Temperature Conversion:
Celsius to Kelvin
C + 273.15 = K
Temperature Conversion:
Celsius to Fahrenheit
C x 1.8 + 32 = F
Temperature Conversion:
Fahrenheit to Celsius
1.8(F-32) = C
Volume
length cubed (l x w x h)

1L = 1dm³
1mL = 1cm³
Density
mass per unit volume

D = m/V

V = m/D
M = DV