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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Macromolecule
Molecule that consists of thousands of covalently connected atoms that form a molecular colossus with a mass of over 100,000 daltons.
Polymer
(H)
A long molecule consisting of many similar, or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds. Carbohydrates, protiens, and nucleic acids.
(H)
From the Greek "Polys", meaning "many", and "Meris", meaning, "part"
Monomer
(H)
The repeating building blocks of a polymer.
(H)
From the Greek "monos", meaning "one", and "meris", meaning "part".
Condensation Reaction
A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called a dehydration reaction.
Hydrolysis
(H)
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water.
(H)
Essintially the reverse of a dehydration reaction.
Carbohydrates
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
Monosaccharides
(H)
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, with a molecular formula generally some multiple of CH2O. Ex. Glucose(C6,H12,O6)
(H)
From the Greek "monos", single, and "sacchar", sugar.
Disaccharide
(H)
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis, AKA, a glycosidic linkage.
(H)
Maltose is formed by the linking of two molecules of glucose.
Glycosidic Linkage
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
Polysaccharides
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
Starch
A polysaccharide storage of plant cells, is a polymer consisting entirely of glucose monomers.
Glycogen
A polysaccharide storage of animal cells. A polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more extensively branched.
Cellulose
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by B-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.