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18 Cards in this Set

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Organic Chemistry
Compounds containing carbon are said to be organic and the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds is called __________.
Vitalism
The belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws.
Hydrocarbons
Organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
Isomers
Compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties.
Structural Isomers
Isomers that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms. The number of possible isomers increases tremendously as carbon skeletons increase in size.
Geometric Isomers
Isomers with the same covalent partnerships, but they differ in their spatial arrangements. They arise from the inflexibility of double bonds, which, unlike single bonds, will not allow the atoms they join to rotate freely about the bond axis.
Enantiomers
Molecules that are mirror images of each other.
Asymmetric Carbon
A carbon atom in the middle of a molecule that is attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms.
Functional Group
The components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions.
Hydroxyl Group
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule. (-OH)
Carbonyl Group
A functional group consisting of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond. ( =CO)
Ketones
If a carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton, it is called a __________.
Aldehydes
If a carbonyl group is at the end of a carbon skeleton, it is called a __________.
Carboxyl Group
A functional group that occurs when an oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group. (-COOH)
Amino
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton. (-NH2)
Sulfhydryl Group
A functional group that consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen. (-SH)
Phosphate Group
A functional group that occurs when a phosphorus atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms; one oxygen oos bonded to the carbon skeleton; two oxygen's carry negative charges. (-OPO3 to the negative 2)
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
The primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell; consists of an organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of three phosphate groups.