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32 Cards in this Set

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Element
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions.
Compound
A substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio.
Trace Elements
Elements required by an organism in only minute details.
Atom
The smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.
Dalton
A formula created to measure the mass of atoms, subatomic particles, and molecules. neutrons and protons have the mass of roughly on of these, each about 1.7 x 10 to the -24. Also it is the same as the atomic mass unit.
Atomic Number
The number of protons in an element.
Mass Number
The sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Mass
The approximation of the total mass of an atom, expressed in Daltons.
Isotopes
Some atoms have more neutrons than other atoms of the same element and therefore have a greater mass. These different atomic forms are called ________.
Radioactive Isotopes (H)
These are present when the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy. When the decay leads to a change in the number of protons, it transforms the atom to an atom of a different element. (H)
Radioactive Carbon decays to form Nitrogen
Energy
Defined as the capacity to cause change.
Potential Energy
Energy that matter possesses because of it's location or structure.
Energy Levels
The different states of potential energy that electrons have in an atom.
Electron Configuration
The distribution of electrons in the atom's electron shells.
Valence Electrons
The outermost electron.
Valence Shell
The outermost electron shell.
Unreactive
An atom with a complete valence shell is called _________ and will not interact readily with other atoms it encounters.
Inert
Meaning chemically unreactive.
Orbital
The three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time.
Chemical Bonds
Atoms with incomplete valence shells can interact with certain other atoms in such a way that each partner completes it's valence shell. These interactions usually result in atoms staying close together, held by attractions called __________.
Covalent Bonds
The sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms.
Molecule
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Single Bond (H)
A pair of shared electrons. (H)
H--H
Structural Formula
The notation, which represents two atoms and their bonding.
Double Bond (H)
A molecule sharing TWO pairs of valence electrons. (H)
C=C
Valence
The bonding capacity of an atom; usually equals the number of unpaired electrons in the atoms outermost shell.
Electronegativity
The attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond.
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
A bond where electrons are shared equally.
Polar Covalent Bond
Where one atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom, the electrons of the bond are not shared equally.
Ion
A charged atom or molecule.
Cation
When the charge of an atom is positive.
Anion
When the charge of an atom is negative.