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35 Cards in this Set

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Hierarchy
Individual
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biome
Biosphere
Population
group of individuals living in the same general area
Community
all the populations together (adding in abiotics: soil, nutrients, oxygen, pH, etc.)
Ecosystem
group of communities
Biome
a major ecological community type (as tropical rain forest, grassland, or desert
Biosphere
living beings together with their environment… everything is called planet earth, compared to spaceship or organism, nifty word descriptions but not scientific
4 components of ecosystems
Abiotics
Producers
Consumers
Decomposers
Abiotics
non-living things
Producers
autotrophs(self-feeders) (auto synthetic)= photo synthesizers and chemo synthesizers
Consumers
heterotrophs (depend on other organisms to feed them) (things that eat producers and other consumers)…things that eat producers or other consumers (primary, secondary, tertiary consumers – primary eat the autotrophs, secondary (omnivore), tertiary (only others, carnivore) – it all depends on what you eat, not herbivore, carnivore, omnivore
•Primary consumer-herbivore 1o C- herbivore or omnivore
•Secondary consumer- 2o C- omnivore or carnivore
•Tertiary consumer- eat other organisms 3o C- carnivore
Decomposers
return consumers, producers, and decomposers back into Abiotics… take the bodies of producers, consumers, and decomposers back into abiotics some are saphrotrophs, which are heterotrophs which exist on dead matter
Ecological equivalents
different organisms filling the same basic niche (how you live) in different ecosystems
Niche
role or function in the scheme of things
Habitat
where you live
Examples:
•Ocean
oKelp
oCrab
oSmall Fish
oShark

•Desert
oMesquite
oInsect
oBird
oHawk
Distribution
oUniform-organized
oRandom- no actual organization
oClumped(easier for diseases to spread)
Density
number of individuals per unit area
Population growth
-what is happening to a population over time
Natality
Mortality
Immigration
Emigration
Mortality
number that died per time unit
Natality
birth rate per hundred individuals over a period of a year; females only males can’t make babies…: birth rate (over a period of year or something) – adds in females v. males (births per female)
Survivorship curves
likelihood of dying at a given time of life
Type I
slight increase in death in the beginning and then steady life until the end where it takes a steep drop
Type II
constant downfall
Type III
steep down fall from the beginning and then steady at the bottom
Age Distribution
population pyramids...woman can be grouped in three different groups prereproductive, reproductive and postreproductive
Exponential curve
J curve represents pure biotic potential=r
Carrying capacity
total number of organisms that an area can support=K
Sigmoid curve
the resistance to the environmental…put those two together and you get an s curve from environmental resistance, in a perfect world we would stay at the carrying capacity, but many times the population starts declining after the carrying capacity is reached. Area between J curve, carrying capacity, and s curve is the environmental resistance
Assumtions for Sigmoid curve
1.Male and female from dying population
2.Put into a perfect but limited environment
4 Phases of S Curve
Lag Phase
Exponential Phase
Stationary Phase
Death Phase
Lag phase
no growth
Exponential phase
beginning of a population
Stationery phase
birth and death rates are equal
Death phase
end of a population
Cycles
the problem is that plants and animals aren’t real bright and they can’t/don’t stop at the carrying capacity and since they over run the food source and then everybody dies or the food source goes down and then come up in time to save the population. The final type could have the same loss of food source but they continue to rebound the population.