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58 Cards in this Set

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MICROOGRANISM
ORGANISM ONLY VISIBLE WITH A MICROSCOPE, THAT THEN IT MULTIPLIES AND CAUSES TISSUE DAMAGE, AND MAY RESULT IN ILLNESS AND DISEASE
INFECTION
IS THE ENTRY INTO THE BODY BY AN INFECTIOUS AGENT
AEROBIC
NEEDING OXYGEN TO LIVE AND GROW
ANAEROBIC
NO OXYGEN IS NEEDED TO LIVE AND GROW
COLONIZATION
A DEVELOPMENT OF A BACTERIAL INFECTION, MICROORGANISMS TAKE UP RESIDENCE AND GROW
CROSS-CONTAMINATION
TRANSMISSION OF INFECTIOUS MICROORGANISMS FROM ONE PERSON OR OBJECT TO ANOTHER
CULTURE
PROPAGATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS OR TISSUE IN SPECIAL MEDIA CONDUCTIVE TO THEIR OWN GROWTH
ENDOTOXIN
A HEAT STABLE TOXIN ASSOCIATED WITH THE OUTER MEMBRANES OF CERTAIN GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA THAT IS RELEASED WHEN THE CELLS ARE DISRUPTED
GRAM-NEGATIVE
BACTERIA THAT LOSE THE STAIN IN GRAM'S METHOD OF STAINING
GRAM-POSITIVE
BACTERIA THAT RETAIN THE STAIN IN GRAM'S METHOD OF STAINING
HOST
AN ANIMAL OR PLANT THAT HARBORS AND PROVIDES SUSTENANCE FOR ANOTHER ORGANISM (A PARASITE)
INFECTION
INVASION AND MULTIPLICATION OF MICROORGANISMS IN BODY TISSUES, WHICH SERVES TO CONTAIN THE INJURIOUS AGENT AND INJURED TISSUE
INFLAMMATION
LOCALIZED RESPONSE CAUSED BY INJURY OR DESTRUCTION OF TISSUES, WHICH SERVES TO CONTAIN THE INJURIOUS AGENT AND INJURED TISSUE
LEUKOCYTOSIS
INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF LEUKOCYTES (WHITE BLOOD CELLS) IN THE BLOOD, DUE TO INFECTION OR OTHER CAUSES
NOSOCOMIAL
INFECTION ACQUIRED DURING HOSPITALIZATION OR OTHER HEALTH CARE FACILITY
PHAGOCYTES
CELLS CAPABLE OF INGESTING PARTICULATE MATTER, (MACROPHAGES)
PHAGOCYTOSIS
THE ENGULFING OF MICROORGANISMS AND FOREIGN PARTICLES BY PHAGOCYTES
SPORES
OVAL BODIES FORMED WITHING BACTERIA AS A RESTING STAGE DURING THE LIFE CYCLE OF THE CELL; CHARACTERIZED BY RESISTENCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES (HEAT, HUMIDITY OR COLD)
TOXIN
A POISON; A POISONOUS PROTEIN PRODUCED BY CERTAIN BACTERIA
VECTORS
CARRIERS THAT TRANSPORT AN INFECTIVE AGENT FROM ONE HOST TO ANOTHER SUCH AS ANIMALS, INSECTS AND RODENTS
VIRULENCE
DEGREE TO WHICH A MICROOGANISM CAN CAUSE INFECTION IN THE HOST OR INVADE THE HOST
PATHOGENS
MICROORGANISMS THAT ARE CAPABLE OF CAUSING DISEASE
BACTERIA
ARE SINGLE-CELL MICROORGANISMS LACKING A NUCLEUS THAT REPRODUCE ABOUT EVERY 20 MINUTES
NORMAL FLORA OF THE BODY

SITE: UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

NOSE, MOUTH, THROAT
NORMAL FLORA

STAPLHYLOCOCCI
CORYNEBACTERIA
STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES (GROUP A)
NEISSERIA SPECIES
STREPTOCOCCI (VIRIDIANS GROUP)
ENTEROBACTER SPECIES
HAEMOPHILUS
KLEBSIELLA SPECIES
LACTOBACILLI
VARIOUS TYPES OF ANAEROBES
NORMAL FLORA OF THE BODY


SITE: SKIN
NORMAL FLORA

STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS
CORYNEBACTERIA
YEASTS
NORMAL FLORA OF THE BODY


SITE: SMALL BOWEL AND COLON
NORMAL FLORA

ENTEROBACTER FAMILY (COLIFORMS)
BACTEROIDES SPECIES
STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS (ENTEROCOCCI OR GROUP D)
CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS
ANAEROBES
NORMAL FLORA OF THE BODY


SITE: VAGINA
NORMAL FLORA

LACTOBACILLUS SPECIES
STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS
ALPHA-HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI
ENTEROCOCCI
ENTEROBACTERIACEAE
MANY TYPES OF ANAEROBES
FINAL IDENTIFICATION IS BY CHEMICAL TESTING OF THE BACTERIA GROWN BY
CULTURE
VIRUSES
ARE EXTREMELY SMALL AND CAN BE SEEN ONLY WITH AN ELECTRON MIRCROSCOPE
VIRUSES
CAN GROW AND REPLICATE ONLY WITHIN A LIVING CELL
PROCESS OF INFECTION
LINK ONE - CAUSATIVE AGENG
LINK TWO - RESERVOIR
LINK THREE - PORTAL OF EXIT
LINK FOUR - MODE OF TRANSFER
LINK FIVE - PORTAL OF ENTRY
LINK SIX - SUSCEPTIBLE HOST
THE MOST EFFECTIVE MEANS FOR DESTROYING VIRUSES AND ALL OTHER KINDS OF MICROORGANISMS IS TO EXPOSE THEM TO MOIST HEAD AT A TEMP OF 250 DEGREES F FOR 15-20 MIN, THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED BY USING AN AUTOCLAVE
STERILIZATION
THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL PROVIDES A WEALTH OF INFORMATION ON ALL ASPECTS OF DISEASE AND ITS PREVENTION
CDC
THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL PROVIDES A WEALTH OF INFORMATION ON ALL ASPECTS OF DISEASE AND ITS PREVENTION
CDC
ISOLATION TECHNIQUES AND BARRIER PRECAUTIONS THAT INCLUDE THE PROPER HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF SECRETIONS, URINE AND FECES, AND EXUDATE CAN PREVENT TRANSFER OF PATHOGENS
PREVENTION
FACTORS THAT INCREASE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTION
1-AGE
2-MALNUTRITION
3-EXCESSIVE STRESS OR FATIGUE
4-LOW WBC COUNT
5-ALCOHOLISM
6-CHRONIC ILLNESS
7-INDWELLING TUBES OR EQUIPMENT
8-IMMUNOSUPPRESIVE TREATMENT
FACTORS TO INCREASE INFECTION
BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION
1. RESERVOIR-INFECTED PATIENT

PREVENT TRANSFER OF MIROCROORANGISMS

HANDWASHING, GLOVES, STANDARD PRECAUTIONS, ISOLATION TECHNIQUES
WAYS TO BREAK CHAIN
MICROORGANISMS

ARE ABUNDANT IN OUR ENVIRONMENT AND MANY CAN CAUSE INFECTION
MICROORGANISMS
PATHOGENS INCLUDE:

BACTERIA, VIRUSES, PROTAZOA, RICKETTSIAS, FUNGI, AND HELMINTHS
PATHOGENS
CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA
COCCI-ROUND
BACILLI-ROD SHAPED
SPIROCHETES-SPIRAL OR CORKSCREW
STREPTOCOCCI-CHAINS
DIPLOCOCCI-PAIRS
STAPHYLOCOCCI-CLUSTERS
CLASSIFICATIONS OF BACTERIA / SHAPES TO IDENTIFY
ANTIBIOTICS

CHEMICAL STUBSTANCES THAT CAN KILL OR ALTER THE GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS-ARE MOST EFFECTIVE AGAINST THE BACTERIA
ANTIBIOTICS
VIRUSES

ARE EXTREMELY SMALL AND CAN BE SEEN ONLY WITH AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
VIRUSES
INFECTIOUS AGENTS

BACTERIA
VIRUSES
PROTOZOA
RICKETTSIAS
FUNGI
HELMINTHS
TYPES OF INFECTION
BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION

RESERVOIR-INFECTED PERSON
PREVENT TRANSFER OF MICROORGANISMS
HANDWASHING, GLOVES, STANDARD PRECAUTIONS, ISOLATION TECHNIQUES
BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION-RESERVOIR
BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION-PORTAL OF EXIT

SECRETIONS-FECES-BLOOD-URINE-SPUTUM
PREVENT CONTAMINATION
HANDWASHING, STANDARD PRECAUTIONS, NO RECAPPING NEEDLES, SHARPS, CONTAINING CONTAMINATION, DISINFECTION, MEDICAL ASEPTIC PRACTICE
BREAKING THE CHAIN OF CONTAMINATION
PORTAL OF EXIT-SECRETIONS
BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION
MODE OF TRANSFER
HANDS-CONTAMINATED FOOD-CONTAMINATED SUPPLIES AND OTHER OBJECTS
PREVENT CONTAINATION, ELIMATE VECTORS,
USE OF STANDARD PRECAUTIONS, HANDWASHING, STERILIZATION, CLEANING,
BREAKING THE CHAIN-MODE OF TRANSFER
BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION-
ENTRANCE
MOUTH, BREAK IN SKIN, MUCOUS MEMBRANES
-PUT ONLY CLEAN THINGS IN MOUTH, PROTECT SKIN, PROTECT MUCOUS MEMBRANES--INTERVENTIONS:: HYGIENE, OBJECTS OUT OF MOUTH, SKIN CARE
;
BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION

RESERVOIR-PATIENT
PORTAL OF EXIT-SECRETIONS
MODE OF TRANSFER-HANDS
ENTRANCE-MOUTH
HOST-SUSCEPTIBLE PERSON
INTERVENTIONS
HANDWASHING
USE OF STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
NO RECAPPING NEEDLES
USE OF STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
COVER SKIN BREAKS
HANDWASHING

1. BEGINNING OF SHIFT
2. BEFORE AND AFTER CARING FOR EACH PATIENT
3. BEFORE PERFORMING PROCEDURES
4. BEFORE ENTERING SPECIAL CARE AREAS
5. WHENEVER HANDS ARE CONTAMINATED
6. BEFORE BEGINNING SHIFT, HANDS FOR 30 SECONDS OR ACCORDING TO AGENCY POLICY
7. AFTER THAT, VIGOROUSLY FOR 10 SECONDS TO 4 MINUTES
HANDWASHING
STANDARD STEPS FOR NURSING PROCEDURES

AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PROCEDURE

A: CHECK THE ORDER IN THE CHART
WASH YOUR HANDS
B: CHECK PATIENTS ID
EXPLAIN THE PROCEDURE TO THE PATIENT
C: PROVIDE PRIVACY
RAISE BED TO WORKING HEIGHT
ARRANGE SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT
D:
STANDARD STEPS OF NURSING PROCEDURES

A, B, C

AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PROCEDURE
STANDARD STEPS FOR NURSING PROCEDURES

DURING THE PROCEDURE:

D: USE STANDARD PRECAUTIONS AND ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE, AS APPROPRIATE. DON GLOVES FOLLOWING STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
DON (PUT ON) EYEWARE, MASK, AND GOWN AS APPROPRIATE

E: PERFORM THE TASK ACCORDING TO PROTOCOL. MENTALLY REVIEW THE STEPS OF THE PROCEDURE BEFORE HAND.
DISCUSS THE PROCEDURE WITH YOUR INSTRUCTOR IF NEEDED; CONFIRM CORRECT PROTOCOLS
STANDARD STEPS FOR NURSING PROCEDURES

STEPS D AND E

DURING THE PROCEDURE
STANDARD STEPS FOR NURSING PROCEDURES

AT THE END OF THE PROCEDURE

X: DISPOSE OF SHARPS APPROPRIATELY
REMOVE GLOVES USING ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE, AND WASH YOUR HANDS

Y: MAKE THE PATIENT COMFORTABLE
RESTORE THE UNIT
WASH YOUR HANDS AGAIN

Z: RECORD AND DOCUMENT THE PROCEDURE
REPORT ABNORMALITIES AS NEEDED
STANDARD STEPS FOR NURSING PROCEDURES

STEPS X, Y, Z

AT THE END OF THE PROCEDURE
HANDWASHING SKILL
REVIEW AND CARRY OUT STEPS A,B,C,D

1.DETERMINE WASH TIME
2.CHECK TO SEE IF YOU HAVE SOAP/TOWELS
3.CRANK OUT TOWELS BEFORE BEGINNING
PUSH WRISTWATCH UP THE ARM
4.TURN ON WATER, ADJUST TEMP
KEEP BODY AWAY FROM SINK
5.WET HANDS, POINTING FINGERS TOWARDS SINK
6.APPLY 2-4ML SOAP
7.WASH HANDS (10 CIR. STROKES PALMS)
WASH BACK OF HAND 10 CIR MOTIONS)
FINGERS, NAILS
8.RINSE WRIST, HANDS, FINGERTIPS,
AVOID TOUCHING SINK
9.DRY HANDS AND WRISTS, BEGINNING AT FINGERTIPS AND UP THE HAND
DRY GENTLY, ONE TOWEL PER HAND
HANDWASHING
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
DEVELOPED BY CDC
TO BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTION

THEY PROTECT BOTH THE NURSE, PATIENT, AND ARE TO BE USED FOR EVERY PATIENT CONTACT
CDC REASONS
REMOVING GLOVES

NONSTERILE GLOVES ARE USED FOR STANDARD PRECAUTIONS AND MOST ISOLATION PROCEDURES. AFTER USE THEY ARE REMOVED IN A MANNER TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF MICROORGANISMS
1. GRASP THE CUFF OFF THE GLOVE OF HONE AND HA
CLEANING AND DISINFECTION

PATHOGENS CAN BE KILLED OR INACTIVATED BY DISINFECTION, BY STERILIZATION, OR BY THE USE OF ANTI-INFECTIVE DRUGS.
ELIMINATING THE RESERVOIR IS A GOOD WAY TO BREAK TRANSMISSION

TO CLEAN OBJECTS

RINSE WITH COLD WATER
WASH THE ITEM IN HOT SOAPY WATER
USE A STIFF BRISTLED BRUSH
RINSE OBJECT HOT WATER
DRY OBJECT
RECOMMENDED DISINFECTANT

1:10 RATIO

I PART CHLORINE BLEACH
10 PARTS WATER
CHRLORINE RATIO
STERILIZATION IS THE BEST METHOD OF ELIMINATING MICROORGANISMS FROM EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

4 METHODS OF STERILIZATION
1.MOIST HEAT (STEAM UNDER PRESSURE)
2.ETHYLENE OXIDE GAS (MICROO & SPORES)
3.BOILING WATER
4.RADIATION-UV, IONIZING
STERILIZATION