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35 Cards in this Set

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any substance that, when dissolved in water, contributes to an excess of H- ions.
acid
base; any substance that, when dissolved in water, contributes to an excess of OH- ions.
alkaline
liquid mixture in which water is the solvent; for example, saltwater is an aqueous solution because water is the solvent.
aqueous
smallest particle of a pure substance (element) that still has the chemical properties of that substance; composed of protons,electrons, and neutrons.
atom
combined total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
atomic mass
total number of protons in an atom's nucleus; atoms of each element have a characteristic atomic number
atomic number
1. A chemical that, when dissolved in water, reduces the relative concentration of H+ ions in the whole solution. 2. In the context of nucleic acids,base or nitrogen base refers to one part of a nucleotide that is the basic building block of nucleic acid molecules; possible bases include adenine,thymine,guanine,cytosine,and uracil.
base
organic compounds containing carbon,hydrogen, and oxyen in certain specific proportions; for example sugars, starches, and cellulose
carbohydrate
substance whose molecules have more than one kind of element in them
compound
bond chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons by overlapping their energy levels
covalent
excessive loss of body water; the most common fluid imbalance; an abnormally low volume of one or more body fluids
dehydration
separation of ions as they dissolve in water
dissociation
shape of DNA molecules; a double spiral
double helix
substance that ionizes in solution, rendering the solution capable of conduction an electric current.
electrolyte
negatively charged particle orbiting the nucleus of an atom
electron
pure substance, composed of only one type of atom
element
limited region surrounding the nucleus of an atom at a certain distance containing electrons; also called a shell.
energy level
a fuctional protein acting as a biochemical catalyst allowing chemical reactions to take place in a suitable time frame
enzyme
polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose molecules; animal starch
glycogen
chemical reaction in which water is added to a large molecule causing it to break apart into smaller molecules
hydrolysis
compound whose molecules do not contain carbon-carbon or carbon-cydrogen bonds.
inorganic compound
chemical bond formed by the positive-negative attraction between two ions
ionic bond
organic molecule usually coposed of glycerol and fatty acid units
lipid
any substance that occupies space and has mass
matter
particle of matter composed of one or more smaller units called atoms
molecule
electrically neutral particle within the nucleus of an atom
neutron
the two nucleic acids are ribonucleic acid, found in the cytoplasm, and deoxyribonucleic acid, found in teh nucleus; made up of units called nucleotides that each include a phospate, a five-carbon sugar, and a nirtogen base
nucleic acids
spherical structure within a cell; a group of neuron cell bodies in the brin or spinal cord; central core of the atom made of of protons and neutrons
nucleus
covalent bond linking amino acids within a protein molecule
peptide bond
mathematical expression of relative H+ concentration
pH
one of the basic nutrients needed by the body; a nitrogen-containing organic compound composed of a folded strand of amino acids
protein
positively charged particle within the nuclueus of an atom
proton
any substance entering (and being changed by) a chemical reaction
reactant
substance that dissolves into anoter substance
solute
substance in which other substances are dissolved
solvent