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162 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-scientific study of human sexuality
-3 main components
-sexology
-research, education, therapy
-who is usually the first influence of sexuality?
-What are some other influences?
-Peers
-Parents, media, sex ed, religion, experiences, science, culture
_______ (name of country)
-Big on fertility and women
-____ statuettes (emphasize sexual characteristics
-Transformation from worship of Great Mother to _____
-Mesopotamia
-Venus
-phallus
______ (name of country)
-Women had high status, but men dominated ____ life
-___ was followed
-fertility rights
-sex for ______
-first _______
Egypt
-public
-monogamy
-pleasure
-contraceptives
_____ (name of culture)
-emphasize reproduction
-certain acts not allowed (ie ____)
Hebrew
-homo
_____ (name of culture)
-followed the ____
-felt they needed to control ___ ____
-no public interaction between males and females
Hebrew
-Koran
-female sexuality
____ (name of culture)
-yin-yang (man woman complete)
-combined sexuality and ____
-___ ____ (book of aphrodesiacs and positions, etc)
Asian
-spirituality
-Kama Sutra
____ (name of culture)
-believed in sex for pleasure as long as _____
-women had ___ ____
-____ (lady who wrote erotic poetry about women)
Greek
-it did not interrupt family
-no rights
-Sappho
____ (name of era)
-women were ___ and not concerned with sex
-____ was a threat
Victorian Age
-passive
-masturbation
______ (movement)
-Began in 1960s, fight for _____
-____ and ___ are two big issues
feminism
-equality
-abortion and contraception
4 problems with research in sexuality
1. environmentakl
2. technical
3. bias
4. validity
what was the problem with the Hite research?
3% response rate
-Kinsey used ______ samples
convenience
Masters and Johnson found ___ stages of arousal. They were a ____ and a ____. they used ____ _____ for their study. They studied human and ____ ____.
4, gynecologist and psychologist, lab observation, sexual response
____ communication is usually more accurate
non-verbal
communication is _____
irreversible
Type of communcation without violating other's rights, defending rights if necessary, states needs and wants, uses I messages, open communication
Assertive
Type of communication where other's rights are violated, it's hurtful and intimidating, not effective, angry, conflict
aggressive
Type of communication where people are easily influenced, agree with others all the time, apologize often, and are not confident
passive
-Women tend to stand ____ during communication. They ___ more. They use conversation to reach ____ and to achieve ____.
-Men are ____. They ____ more.
-closer, smile, consensus, closeness
-negotiators, talk
-____ is a non-direct tactic to signal interest
-It is affected by ___, ____, and ____
-It is a ____ skill.
-flirting
-setting, culture, gender
-learned
___ and ___ communication is the best way to discuss sexuality
open and honest
-____ is the key to avoiding misunderstanding
-___ is extremely important in new relationships prior to sexual relationship
-gay and lesbian couples have ____ communication styles as hetero
-in gay remationships, the more powerful partner uses ____ communication
-
-communication
-communication
-similar
-less powerful
4 ways to resolve issues:
1. avoidance (very passive)
2. competing (aggressive)
3. compromising (assertive)
4. colaborating (assertive)
____ makes your desires known to others
assertiveness
sexuality education should include what 5 things?
1. positive attitudes about sexual nature
2. factual background
3. develop skills for effective communication
4. learn tolerance for others
5. critical thinking and decision-making skills
school education: research shows that children with education have increase ______ and fewer _____
use of condoms, sexual partners
2 main programs and examples
1. abstinence only until marriage (no talk about contraception)
Ex: Aim for success, worth the wait (6-8th grade)
2. Abstinence based
Ex: teens talk, post-poning sexual involvement, teen choices
largest abstinence only ed. program
aim for success
____ attachment has trusting relationships, very comfortable in romantic involvement, high self-esteem, very forgiving
secure
____ attachment- better at receiving than giving love, very sensitive to rejection
ambivalent
___ attachment- very involved in other aspects of life, self-sufficient with lots of alone time
avoidant
heterosexuals prefer ___ ____ ____ in a partner
gender specific stereotypes
two things in "likes attract" that are sometimes different between couples:
1. attitudes
2. ethnicity
5 myths about love and attraction
1. love is enough
2. love at first sight
3. the one and only
4. perfect partner/relationship
5. try harder
-___ is a learned behavior
-love
Lee's 6 love styles
1. eros (romantic, passionate, sensual, intimate)
2. mania (obsessive, very high and low)
3. ludus (playful, no commitment, love is game)
4. storge (companionate love)
5. agape (brotherly, altruistic, put others before self)
6. pragmatic (practical, logical, no emotion)
Another theory of love styles (2 types)
1. passionate (sensual, often at beginning)
2. companionate (most long-term become companionate)
___ __ ____ reinforces passionate and companionate love
falling in love
-lesbian women recognize homosexuality _____ than men
-lower/higher % of homo women have been married than men
-later
-higher
lesbians first feel ___, then ____. Opposite for men.
emotional, sexual
2 types of destructive behaviors in relationship:
1. dependency
2. jealousy
5 stages of relationship disintegration:
1. differentiating (focus on themselves)
2. circumscribing (avoidance of emotion, stay with "safe" topics)
3. stagnating (not really a relationship)
4. avoiding (avoid each other)
-female external genitals
-fat pad over pubic bone
-"lips"-protects, sweat and oil glans
-end of vaginal orphis to anus
-most sensitive part
-vulva
-mons pubis
-labia majora/minora
-perineum
-clitoris
-erectile tissue in the female, equal number of nerve endings as the penis
-stimulation causes ______, swelling of _____, and erection
-clitoris
-vasodialation, labia
-everything in the labia minor
-vaginal vestibule
vagina is ___ inches long. Covered by the ____
4, heiman
lower 1/3 of uterus, makes mucus to protect
cervix
made of fundus, body, and cervix
uterus
uterine wall is made up of 3 things:
1. perimetrium
2. myometrium
3. endometrium
-outside layer of the uterine wall
-muscles and tissue in uterine wall
-inner lining of uterine wall
-perimetrium
-myometrium
-endometrium
pregnancy that occurs in the fallopian tubes
ectopic
4 inches long, extend from uterus
fallopian tubes
almond size, produce and release eggs
ovaries
dark circle around the nipple that has little bumps that help secrete oil and other stuff to help baby latch and feed
areola
____ stimulates the pituitary to put out hormones and is part of the hypothalamus
GnRH
hormones operate on a _____
negative feedback system
4 things produced by the pituitary
1. FSH
2. LH
3. Prolactin
4. Oxytocin
____ prompts ovaries to develop follicle
FSH
___ stimulates mature follicle to release in ovulation
LH
ovarian follicle produce high levels of ____
estrogen
___ stimulates sperm production in males. AKA _____
FSH, innersticial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)
-after ovulation, the follicle becomes ___
-Degenerates after ___ day
-corpus luteum
-24th
how much % body fat is needed to menstruate
17
female sex hormone that stimulates reproductive organs in puberty; responsible for secondary sex characteristics; builds endometrium; reduced in menopause
estrogen
found in corpus luteum, makes endometrium soft and thick preparing for pregnancy; degenerates if no fertilization; continues if pregant
progesterone
this hormone is only present during pregnancy and is what is detected in pregnancy tests
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
produce sex drive in women
androgens
_________ begins when hypothalamus secretes GnRH, which stimulates FSH and LH release
fertility cycle
first mentruation, between 12-13
menarche
painful menstruation
dysmenorrhea
menopause is considered to have arrived when no periods after ___ (how long)
1 year
A ______ involves examination of external genitals, internal genitals, bimanual exam, and rectovaginal exam
pelvic
-___ is a cervical cancer screening recommended every ___ years
-____ and ____ are associated with cervical cancer
-PAP smear, 1-3
-HPV16 and HPV18 (genital warts)
-PAP smear result that is associated with HPV
-PAP smear result that is either low or high grade
-PAP smear result that is based on staging
-ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of ...)
-CIN (cervical introepithelial neoplasia)
-malignant
-precursor to cervical cancer
-dysplasia
4 types of vulva infections
1. irritations
2. herpes
3. genital warts
4. syphilis
_____ is caused by E.Coli and causes frequent urination
urinary tract infection
disease of fallopian tubes
Pelvic inflammatory disease
3 infections of vagina
1. trichomonas (usually green, fowl)
2. yeast infections (usually white to yellow)
3. bacterial vaginosis
________ is staplococcus aureus or streptococcus pyogenes; associated with outbreak in 1970s; fever, sun rash, sore throat, aching, and flu-like symptoms
toxic shock syndrome
-______ cancer is the most common female pelvic malignancy, usually occurs after menopause; risk factors include obesity, altered menstruation, no children, postmenopausal bleeding
-____ cancer incidences increase with age; increased risk with no children, breast cancer, and family history; oral contraceptives reduce risk
-endometrial
-ovarian
irregular lumpy breasts aht chances with monthly cycles; does not usually lead to cancer
fibrocystic breast disease
lumpy breasts that do not change shape monthly
fibroadema
-second leading cause of death among women
-most common cancer in women
-mortality is higher for ____
-breast cancer
-breast cancer
-AA
1 out of ___ women will get breast cancer
8
3 parts of penis
1. base
2. shaft/body
3. glans penis/head
-there are ___ cylinders/erectile tissue....2 ____ body and 1 ____ body (urethra)
3, cavernous, spongy
average penis is ___ inches, ___ when erect
3-4, 5
-male gonads
-where sperm matures
-tube from scrotum to seminal vesibles (what they cut in vasectomy)
-aid in semen production
-testes
-epididymis
-vas deferens
-accessory glands
-produce sperm and sex hormones
-must be 3-4 degrees higher/lower than body temp
-____ contracts when cold
-testes
-lower
-cremaster muscle
-first place to see sperm production and sperm cells
-aid in testosterone production
-seminiferous tubules
-interstitial cells
male sperm can last from __ to ___
48-72 hours
-2 fluids in sperm:
-__ to ___ sperm in 1 ejaculation
-prostate and seminol vesicle
-100 to 750 million
sperms mature in ____ for about _ to _ days
epididymous, 10-14
-____ is the sex gland
-____ gland releases ICSH and FSH
-___ is the most abundant hormone in men (responsible for primary sex char)
-hypothalamus
-pituitary
-testosterone
___ is testicular disease that has decreased hair, high voice, slow growth, and little sex drive
hypogonadism
-higher among white americans (male cancer)
-orchidectomy
-testicular cancer
infection of prostate
prostatitus
majority of men in 60s have this
enlarged prostate
2nd leading cause of cancer among men; __ times more common in AA, urination problem, diet, family history; digital rectacl exam, PSA, ultrasound
prostate cancer
-___ million people have AIDS
-every ___ seconds, someone dies from AIDS
-40
-10
-Russians have _____ with AIDS
-___ % of HIV transmission in Russia is through drugs
-250,00
-90
-India has ___ million with HIV
-India has more cases of HIV than anywhere except ____
-3.9
-South Africa
___ has had a decline of about half in their HIV infection
-Uganda
-Thailand has ____ (#) sex workers
-___% of sex workers have AIDS
-AIDS is ___ leading cause of death in Thailand
-1 million
-20
-#1
-AIDS related deaths have dropped ___% in the past 10 years in Brazil
-Brazil uses ___% of budget for AIDS
-50
-25
-Almost ___ # of people living with AIDS by end of 2002 in US
-about 1 in ___ have AIDS in US
-Approx ___ people diagnosed each year in US
-400,000
-300
-40,000
-HIV/AIDS is a _____ (epidemic across countries)
-of the 40,000 new cases per year in US, ___% are men
-___% of men in America with AIDS are AA
-___% of women in American with AIDS are AA
-pandemic
-70
-50
-64
-Drug that reduces placenta crossing of HIV
-Higher rates of HIV in __ and ___ in US
-in US, AIDS is leading cause of death for men age __ to ___
-in US, since first diagnosed, increase in AIDS from __ to ___ %
-AZT
-South and Northeast
-25-44
-7 to 26&
-___% of AIDS infections are non-industrialized nations
-__ to ___% chance of AIDS to baby if no drugs are taken
-90%
-20-30
Sub-Saharan Africa
-___ million with HIV, ___ million in 2004
-___% of all people with HIV, but only 10% of the world population
-25, 3
-60
highest rate of HIV infection for a single nation
India
North America and Western Europe
-___ million peeps with HIV
-___ new cases in 2004
-1.5
-64,000
Middle East and North Africa
-___ cases with ___ new cases in 2004
-540,000 / 92,000
Latin America
-__ million with HIV with ____ new cases in 2004
-1.7 / 240,000
Asia
-___ million w/ ___ million new cases in 2004 of HIV
-8.2 / 1.2
-Can take up to ___ years for HIV symptoms
-10 years
3 opportunistic infections:
1. pnemocystis carinii
2. kaposis sarcoma
3. tuberculosis
Majority of people with HIV are diagnosed between ages of __ and __
30-39
-AIDS is ___ x higher in AA women
-AIDS is ___ x higher in Hispanic women
-16
-7
-____ measures antibodies in body through saliva in the mouth
-___ means positive HIV test
-___ means negative HIV test
-orasure
-seronegative
-seropositive
-the immune system uses the ___ to detect harmful pathogens and destroys
-___ originate in bone marrow and this is where HIV attacks
-lymph nodes
-lymphocytes
-___ attack pathogens
-HIV attacks __ or ____
-T-cells
-CD4 or T-Cells
HIV is a ____
retrovirus
___ ~ immunoglobulin, actively destroy antigens in blood
B-cells
___% of males with HIV are homo
___% of females with HIV are hetero
55
65
Majority of HIV contraction is through ___
sexual contact
-takes ____ (amount of time) for virus to circulate
-takes ___ for illness to enter acute viral symdrome
- _ to _ month window for antibody test
-___ to ___ for AIDS to develop
-1-3 weeks
-1-8 weeks
-3 to 6
-6 months to 15 years
AIDS is when you have a T-cell count of ___ or less
200
-HIV suppression is used to control the ____ ____
-____ inhibitors for HIV
-Viral load
-Protease
-4 stages of person going through HIV
-denial, anger, depression, acceptance
Name 3 STI's that can be spread even with the use of condom
Herpes, HPV, syphilis
T/F studies indicate that condom use is effective to protect against HIV transmission
T
STD's are _____ diseases
communicable
-communicable diseases are caused by infectious agents called ____
-the foreign substance that stimulates an immune response is called an ____
-pathogens
-antigen
__ and ___ are the most common STIs among teens
=chlamydia, gonorrhea
Name 3 viral STIs
-HPV (genital warts), Herpes, HIV
-____ is herpes below the waist
-__to ___ million have herpes
-mother to baby in birth can cause ___
-HSV2
-40 to 45
-blindness
____ is associated with genital lesions
herpes
herpes in babies can lead to brain infection called _____
encephalitis
men and women who have herpes face ___ the risk of contracting HIV
2x
-___ means inflammation of the liver
-____ is most commonly transmitted through contaminated water
-____ is the most common and most dangerous of this kind of viral infection. Transmission of it is similar to HIV
-_____ is transmitted in similar ways to the one above, but it is not as contagious
-hepatitis
-Hepatitis A
-Hepatitis B
-Hepatitis C
-____ is associated with warts. THe big concern with this STI is that it can lead to _____
-between __ and __ % of women under age 25 are infected
-the two types most associated with cervical cancer are __ and ____
-1 in __ college females has it
-there are up to ____ types of sexual HPV
-HPV, cervical cancer
-28-46
-16 + 18
-1 in 2
-60
Name 5 bacterial STIs
-chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, bacterial vaginitis, PID
___ is the most common sexually transmitted disease in US and may be the most dangerous for women
-___% of women and ___ % of men have no symptoms
-AKA "the ___ ___"
-___ can be caused by this
-
-chlamydia
-75, 50
-silent epidemic
-PID
-With ____, 1 in ___ women will become infertile
-___ pregnancies also occur in this case
-most common cause of PID is ____, but can also be caused by ____
-PID, 5
-ectopic
-gonorrhea, chlamydia
-___ is a bacterial infection that stays in moist mucous membranes of infected people.
-it is the most common cause of ____
-Mostly asymptomatic in women, men usually have ____ problems and ____
-sometimes gonorrhea can progress in to a serious, even fatal, ____ infection (blood-borne)
-Gonorrhea
-PID
-urinary, discharge
-systemic
___ is a more serious disease than gonorrhea because it always spreads to the bloodstream and is life-threatening
-3 stages of this disease
-syphilis
-1. primary (have chancre, not painful, very easily spread, in a couple weeks, it goes away)
2. secondary (rash all over body, will disappear in a week or 2, go into latent stage)
3. late stage (bacteria invades nervous system)
means from mother to baby
congenital
____ is inflammation of the vagina.
-it has a ____ smell and ___ discharge
-vaginitis
-fishy smell, green discharge
_____ is the only STD we have a vaccine for
HBV
___ can be acquired on a toilet seat.
-____ is the most common symptom
-trichomonas
-foul smelling discharge
-___ is infection of the skin by tiny burrowing mites; highly contagious
-scabies
-____ are small grey insects that live as external parasites on teh body
-the eggs of this _____
-pubic lice
-nits
____ is another name for yeast infection
-candidiasis
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f