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240 Cards in this Set

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Any human, physical, or operational resource required to accomplish objectives of the system.
Input
Action or activity to change inputs to outputs.
Transformation
Result of transforming input into achievement of a system's goal.
Output
A collection or interrelated parts or subsystems unified by design to obtain one or more objectives.
System
All stored information that provides historical records of a systems operations.
Memory
Things outside the system that can impact the operation of the system.
Environmental factors
Process by which a system continually receives information from its internal and external environment.
Feedback
Organizations that are in continual interaction with the environment.
Open systems
Working together can create greater outcomes than working individually.
Synergy
Continuous response and adaptation of a system to its internal and external environment.
Dynamic Equilibrium
The same or similar output can be achieved using different inputs or by varying the transformation process.
Equfinality
Characteristic of a system that is composed of subsystems of a lower order and a suprasystem of a higher order.
Hierarchy
Type of resource including labor and skills.
Human
Type of resource including food and supplies.
Materials
Type of resource including space and equipment.
Facilities
Type of resource including money, time, utilities, and information.
Operational
Characteristics of a company that distinguish it from others.
Competitive advantage
Individuals or groups who are significantly affected by or can significantly influence a company's decisions.
Stakeholder
Statement of where a company wants to be in the future.
Vision
Statement describing the what a company does on a daily basis.
Mission
Foodservice operations in which the sale of food is the primary activity and a profit is desired.
Commercial Foodservice
Foodservice operations in which the sale of food is secondary to the goal of the organization; typically not for profit.
Onsite foodservice
When the foodservice operation is managed by an employee of the company in which that foodservice operation is located.
Self-operation
A mutual commitment by two parties on how they will interact during a contract.
Partnering
An agreement between two or more persons to do or not do something.
Contract
When an individual or group purchases the rights to use and market another company's concepts.
Franchising
A data driven approach and technique for eliminating defects and reducing variations in any process.
Six Sigma
A procedure that defines and ensures maintenance of standards within prescribed tolerances for a product or service.
Quality Assurance
A management philosophy directed at improving customer satisfaction while promoting positive change and effective cultural environment for continuous improvement.
Total Quality management
The reviewing of operations on a routine basis with the goal of finding ways to continually improve the processes in and outcomes of the operation.
Continuous Quality Improvement
The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in performance.
Reengineering
Operating with minimal resources.
Lean
A management principle aimed at exploiting or breaking constraints that limit the organization from reaching its goals.
Theory of constraints
Also called ishikawa or fish-bone diagrams, these diagrams illustrate the factors that may influence or cause a given outcome.
Cause and effect diagrams
Bar graphs used to display graphically the the frequency distribution of data.
Histograms
Often called the 80-20 rule, states that 80% of a given outcome typically results from 20% of an input.
Pareto Analysis
The most important control of a foodservice system.
The Menu
Menu is presented orally.
Spoken menu
Several food items are grouped together and sold at one price.
Table d'hote
Food items are priced individually
A la carte
Same menu items are offered every day.
Static menu
Series of menus offering different items daily on a fixed repeating basis.
Cycle menu
Menu that is planned for service on a particular day and not used in the exact form a second time.
Single-use menu
A method used to measure food acceptability based on the amount of food left on a plate.
Plate waste
Individual estimation of plate waste using a scale, used to measure food acceptability.
Self-reported consumption
Recommendations for good health developed by the USDA and the US Department of Health and Human Services
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Illustration of nutrition and physical activity recommendations.
MyPyramid
Recommendations for dietary intake of nutrients for healthy growth.
Recommended Dietary Allowance
Foods are purchased in different stages of preparation for and individual operation, and production, distribution, and service are completed on the same premises.
Conventional Food Service
Plates or trays are assembled in an area close to production.
Centralized service
Food in transported in bulk to a location separate from production and plates or trays of food are assembled in that location.
Decentralized service
Menu items are produced and held chilled or frozen until heated for serving.
Ready prepared foodservice
Method in which menu items are partially cooked, rapidly chilled, held in chilled storage, and reheated just prior to service.
Cook-chill
A process of sealing raw, fresh food items in plastic pouches to allow chilled storage and then cooking in boiling water prior to service.
Sous vide
Centralized procurement and production facilities with distribution of prepared menu items to several remote areas for final preparation and service.
Commissary foodservice
Menu items are purchased preprepared and require minimal cooking before service.
Assembly serve
Collaborative planning session
Charrette
Amount of light generated when 1 foot candle of light shines from a source.
Lumen
Measurement of illumination equal to 1 lumen of light on 1 square foot of space.
Foot-candle
A measure of the coolness to warmness appearance of a light.
Correlated color temperature
The amount of light required by Food Code in restaurant storage areas.
10 foot candles
The amount of light required by Food Code in handwashing and warewashing areas.
20 foot candles
The amount of light required by Food Code in areas of a foodservice establishment where food preparation takes place.
50 foot candles
Department that generates revenues greater than its expenses and creates profit for the organization.
Profit center
Department that has expenses but does not generate profits to cover those expenses.
Cost center
The chain of producers, processors or manufacturers, distributors, suppliers and customers through which change in ownership moves commodities from producer to consumer.
Marketing Channel
Independent sales and marketing representative who contracts with manufacturers, processors, or prime source producers to sell to wholesalers, suppliers, or foodservice operations.
Brokers
Increasing the market value of raw and semiprocessed products to increase revenues of products moving through the marketing channel.
Value added
Federal standards that identify what a given food product contains.
Standards of identity
Federal standards for product quality attributes such as tenderness, color, and freedom from defects.
Standards of quality
Exposure of food to gamma rays or radiant energy to reduce harmful bacteria, considered a food additive.
Irradiation
Irradiation, genetically engineered foods, and nutrition labeling are regulated by this federal agency.
the FDA
The procedure of deciding whether to purchase from ones self or purchase from suppliers.
Make-or-buy decisions
Statement understood by buyers and suppliers of the required quality of products.
Specification
Specification that indicates quality by objective and impartial test results.
Technical specification
Specification that indicates quality by specifying a brand name or label.
Approved brand specification
Specification that indicates quality by functioning characteristics of the product.
performance specification
Buyer decides which supplier will be chosen for the order based on bids submitted from the seller.
Bid purchasing
Each supplier bids on each product on the buyer's list, and the lowest bidder receives the order for that product.
Line-item bidding
This type of bidding requires suppliers to bid the best price on a complete list of items.
All-or-nothing bidding
Buyer's authority to act for the organization, the obligation each owes the other, and the extent to which each may be held liable for the other's actions.
Law of agency
Guarantee by the supplier that an item will perform in a specified way.
Law of warranty
Signed agreement between two or more parties related to the purchase of a product or service.
Law of contract
Purchasing done by a unit or department of an organization that is authorized to purchase.
Independent purchasing
Purchasing based on the principle that the purchasing activity is done by one person or department.
Centralized purchasing
Purchasing by bringing together managers from different operations for joint purchasing.
Group purchasing (purchasing cooperative)
Purchasing products as needed for production and immediate consumption by the consumer without having to store and record products in inventory.
Just-in-time purchasing
Form used by foodservice manager to request items from purchasing manager or department.
requisition
Document prepared by the supplier that includes product name, quantity, and price.
Invoice
Document completed by the buyer and given to the supplier listing items to be purchased.
Purchase order
Premeditated burglary
theft
Inventory shrinkage
Pilferage
Separate units for thawing frozen foods, designed to maintain 40F.
Tempering boxes
Periodic actual counting and recording of products in stock in all storage areas.
Physical inventory
Purchases and issues continuously are recorded for each product in storage, making the balance in stock availability at all times.
Perpetual Inventory
Inventory control method based on the varying value of products into 3 groups: high value, medium value, and low concern items.
ABC method
The inventory control method based on the establishment of minimum and maximum inventory methods.
Minimum-maximum method
The inventory control method based on a sensible balance of ordering cost and inventory holding cost.
Economic order quantity method
Products are used in the order of purchase.
First in first out (FIFO)
Products purchased most recently are sold first.
Last in first out (LIFO)
Art and science of estimating events in the future, which provides a database for decision making and planning.
Forecasting
Cooking smaller quantities of menu items as needed for service.
Batch cooking
Ingredient assembly area designated for measuring ingredients to be transmitted to the various work centers.
Ingredient room
Recipe that consistently delivers the same quantity and quality of a product when followed precisely; suites a particular purpose.
Standardized recipe
Managers whose reporting relationships, both upward and downward, are vertical.
Line Managers
A person who does the work of the organization or produces the product; also called a worker
Operative
Managers who oversee employees responsible for production; need a high level of technical skills, good human relations skills, and some conceptual skills.
Frontline Managers
Managers who direct the activities of an organization rather than the actual production; need a high level of conceptual skills, good human relations, and some technical skills.
Top-level managers
Managers whose level is above that of frontline managers, but who are subordinate to top-level managers; need technical and conceptual skills in equal amounts, and good human relations skills.
Middle Managers
A measure of the influence a manager has on an organization; usually measured by the number of people who report to the manager.
Span of control
Managers who oversee supportive departments or groups; they report laterally, not vertically.
Staff Managers
The vertical relationships between members of an organization that are based on authority and power.
Chain of command
The concentration of decision making and power at the upper levels of an organization.
Centralization
The ability for individuals at the lower levels of an organization to make decisions appropriate to their own areas of responsibility.
Decentralization
The specialization of groups in an organization, which may be based on product, function, clients, location, or work processes.
Departmentalization
The "personality" of an organization
Organizational Culture
The practice of assigning each worker to a few specialized tasks to perform, rather than a large number of more general tasks,
Division of labor
Global plans that set the direction for an organization within the context of its internal and external environments.
Strategic plans
A criterion for management focused on meeting defined goals and objectives
Effective
A criterion for management defined as doing things in the best way relative to resource utilization.
Efficient
A criterion for management based on the ability to adapt to the specific environment
Appropriate
A criterion for management that considers whether what was done was done in the correct amount.
Adequate
Anticipation of the need to make a decision some time in the future, and making the decision in advance so that it can be implemented in a timely manner at the time it is needed.
Contingency planning
The first step in the management process; the act of finding a problem and acknowledging that it exists.
Problem Identification
The second step in the management process; determining which factors will have the most relevance in a given situation.
Establish criteria
The third step in the management process; assigning each established criterion a ranking in terms of importance.
Weighing the criteria
The fourth step in the management process; the act of determining the different options available to address the situation at hand.
Identify the alternatives
The fifth step in the management process; the process of comparing and examining the alternatives by measuring them against the same standards, using only the relevant criteria.
Analyze the alternatives
The sixth step in the management process; involves choosing the alternative which best addresses the issue, based on the analysis that has been done
Making the decision
The seventh step in the management process; the act of carrying out the plan that has been made; often involves communicating exactly what is to happen.
Implementing
The eighth and last step of the management process; receiving feedback about the choice that has been implemented--was it effective, efficient, appropriate, and adequate?
Evaluation
The four P's of marketing: product, place, price, and promotion
The marketing mix
A view of the marketplace that balances the needs, wants, and demands of consumers with those of the organization and those of society.
Social marketing perspective
The marketing of a product to the population at large, without discriminating among population subgroups
Mass Marketing
The marketing of a product to a unique subgroup within the population rather than to the population at large.
Target marketing
Something that cannot be seen, touched, or held--like services.
Intangible
A characteristic of services in which a product cannot be separated from its provider.
Inseparability
The route that products follow from the manufacturer to the end user; may be direct and simple, or complex with the products changing ownership several times along the way.
Distribution channel
The methods used to attract consumers to a product so as to convince them to purchase it.
Promotion
Money that is kept on hand for making emergency purchases, or for minor expenditures that cannot be made through regular vendors in a timely manor.
Petty Cash
A document produced by the accounting department that lists actual data accumulated for the accounting period, including controllable and uncontrollable revenues and expenses.
Profit and loss statement (P&L)
Nonliquid, tangible goods that have been capitalized and are being depreciated over time.
Fixed assets
Items, like inventory, that can be easily converted to cash.
Liquid assets
Debts or other financial obligations of a business; may be current of accrued
Liabilities
A financial report that summarizes an organizations assets, liabilities, and owner's equity. Provides the user with a snapshot of the organization's financial status at a point in time.
Balance Sheet
The use of computer technology in managing, processing, and accessing information.
IT- Information technology
Information that is stored in a computer system for the purpose of processing intrinsic information. Includes database and programs.
Extrinsic information
Information that is processed; includes data inputs as well as data outputs created by the system.
Intrinsic information
The effective production, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information in any format and on any medium.
IM- Information management
A type of data communications network in which a group of computers is interconnected in a small geographic area
LAN- Local area network
A program that consists of a database listing food items and nutrients; used to determine nutrient composition of foods, recipes, or diets of individuals or groups
Nutrient Analysis Program
An information processing system used by dietetic practitioners to process information related to patient meals and meal service.
Patient Services Program
The management information system that is used for the processing of patient information in health care facilities.
Patient information systems
Awareness, understanding, support, involvement, and commitment are all stages of what process:
Adjustment to change
Individuals who are considered good managers, work well with staff, and demonstrate respect, concern, and empathy for employees.
Leaders
An essential leadership characteristic that is seen in a leader's reliability, fairness, and credibility to others.
Integrity
A leadership style illustrated by a leader who takes total control, assumes full authority, and takes full responsibility for the area managed.
Autocratic leadership
A commonly used leadership style in which the leader gathers information and seeks the opinions of colleagues and/ or subordinates before taking action.
Participative leadership
A leadership style based on "majority rules," in which decisions are made by the group rather than by the manager alone.
Democratic leadership
A leadership style that requires that decisions or plans be made by a group and is based on all members working together until agreement is reached.
Consensus leadership
A leadership style that transforms employees who merely carry out their duties to employees who feel comfortable in contributing their input to the management process.
Transformation (developmental) leadership
Individuals with authority to oversee and direct the work of subordinates as well as having responsibility for their own work.
Supervisors
The act of providing intensive supervision to subordinates by constantly checking and verifying their progress.
Micromanagement
An individual who works a predetermined number of hours a week that is less than half time (typically less than 20 hours/ week)
Short-hour employee
A worker who is not guaranteed any set number of hours each week, but who is scheduled for work as needed
Casual or On call employee
An employee who is usually hired to complete a project and who is typically not on the employer's payroll
Contract employee
Employees, such as temporary and contract employees, who know their work positions are short term or temporary.
Contingent workers
Changes in the rate of pay, such as additional pay for working overtime, for performing exceptionally difficult work, or for working in a different job, or the additional payment made to employees who do not receive benefits.
Differential wage rates
A physical consequence of stress in the workplace that can result from working long hours, or being tired, dissatisfied, or angry with the work or work setting.
Burnout
Loss of employees because the employees voluntarily choose to leave their jobs.
Attrition
A standard term used to describe the number of full time positions worked by all employees; one unit is usually equal to 40 hours per week, or 2,080 hours per year.
Full-time equivalent (FTE)
A federal law that enables people with different physical abilities to enter the mainstream with greater ease by mandating that organizations provide appropriate accommodation.
Americans with Disabilities Act
A federal law that prohibits discrimination against certain groups, such as women or minorities, in the workforce.
Equal Opportunity
A federal law that requires giving hiring preference to previously disenfranchised workers.
Affirmative Action
A decrease in the workforce, also called layoffs; employees may be transferred or terminated.
Reductions in Force (RIF)
A listing of the general duties related to a job or job classification.
Job description
A list of requirements for a specific job, that can be evaluated objectively and that apply to all candidates for that job.
Job Specification
A detailed description of the daily duties to be carried out in a specific job, often including time frames for each activity.
Job Analysis
The person who currently holds the position.
Incumbent
A tool used by managers to evaluate personnel and to help identify their strengths as well as areas that need improvement
Performance appraisal
The ability of an employee to change jobs; moves can be upward, downward, or lateral within an organization, or another organization.
Job mobility
A written standard used within an organization to describe what is to be done and how to do it.
Policy and procedure (P&P)
A written record, in this case of the disciplinary actions taken and steps that led to the disciplinary action.
Documentation
A hearing before someone empowered to resolve the dispute.
Arbitration
Negotiation between two parties, usually a neutral intermediary to assist in settling a dispute.
Mediation
A pricing method in which the purchaser pays the actual cost of the goods to the vendor, plus a markup to cover handling costs and profit.
Cost plus
A concept that it is more efficient to complete a task once on large scale versus repeating the same task on a smaller scale to reach the same output level.
Economy of scale
A two dimensional diagram of a master schedule on which activities are listed on the left side of the figure and times are represented across the top; it depicts the movement of work through time.
Gantt Chart
The physical aspects of work and movement; how movement relates to the performance of a task.
Ergonomics
The process of changing how a job is performed to decrease the energy expenditure and increase the output of a worker.
Work simplification
Preparing employees to perform various jobs within a work setting.
Cross training
A forecasting method that uses information, experience, and intuition to determine the amount of product needed.
Subjective forecasting
The amount of food that can be consumed after accounting for preparation and/or cooking losses.
Edible portion (EP)
The amount of a product (food item) acquired before any production loss has occurred.
As purchased (AP)
A form of production control to regulate serving size; one of the most important controls in a foodservice system.
Portion control
Customers who must use a product or service because they have no other options.
Captive clientele
The ratio of output to input; can be physical or human
Productivity
Meals per labor hour in foodservice operations
Productivity Level
The rate, pitch, and volume of the voice giving the message
Paralanguage
Cultural attitudes about time that effect communication
Chronemics
Focusing on on major activity at a time.
Monochromic time
Working on several major items at the same time.
Polychromic time
The use of eye contact during communications.
Oculesics
Communicating through touch or body contact.
Haptics
Increase the variety and number of tasks and control the employee has over the job
Job enrichment
Calculation of numbers of snacks, nourishment, paid meals, into a common number of meals.
Meal Equivalent
This act severely restricted the ability of employers to obtain a federal injunction forbidding a union from picketing or striking
Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932 (also called the Anti-injunction Act)
The act placed the protective power of the federal government behind employee efforts to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their choice
The 1935 Wagner Act (previously called the National Labor Relations Act)
Passed over Harry Truman's veto, this law amends the Wagner Act.
The 1947 Taft-Hartley Act
This act expanded the Taft-Hartley Act to include labor racketeering.
Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959 (also called the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act)
Raw food costs and direct labor cost of those employees involved in preparation of a food item but not service, sanitation, or administrative costs.
Prime Cost
Specialty broilers that are much smaller and often mounted above a range.
Salamander or Cheesemelter
This equipment works like a double boiler, with the ability to adjust the steam pressure.
Steam-jacketed kettle
Equipment that works by trapping and removing air that causes steam pressure to build.
Pressure Steamers
Equipment that utilizes double sided grilling technology
Clamshell
A type of oven in which food is placed directly on ceramic or stainless steel decks.
Deck Oven
This act severely restricted the ability of employers to obtain a federal injunction forbidding a union from picketing or striking
Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932 (also called the Anti-injunction Act)
The act placed the protective power of the federal government behind employee efforts to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their choice
The 1935 Wagner Act (previously called the National Labor Relations Act)
Passed over Harry Truman's veto, this law amends the Wagner Act.
The 1947 Taft-Hartley Act
This act expanded the Taft-Hartley Act to include labor racketeering.
Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959 (also called the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act)
Raw food costs and direct labor cost of those employees involved in preparation of a food item but not service, sanitation, or administrative costs.
Prime Cost
Specialty broilers that are much smaller and often mounted above a range.
Salamander or Cheesemelter
This equipment works like a double boiler, with the ability to adjust the steam pressure.
Steam-jacketed kettle
Equipment that works by trapping and removing air that causes steam pressure to build.
Pressure Steamers
Equipment that utilizes double sided grilling technology
Clamshell
A type of oven in which food is placed directly on ceramic or stainless steel decks.
Deck Oven
This cooking equipment has a fan in the back or side wall that creates currents of air within the chamber, to reduce cooking time by 30%
Convection Oven
Also called a pizza oven, in this equipment food travels on a moving conveyor belt.
Conveyor Oven
A combination of intense light and infrared energy are used in this equipment to cook foods quickly.
FlashBake Oven
This equipment utilizes convected air and steam to produce a super-heated, moist internal atmosphere.
Combi-oven
A floor mounted, rectangular pan with a gas or electric heated flat bottom, pouring lip, and hinged cover; versatile and combines advantages of a range, griddle, kettle, oven, stock pot, ban marie, and frying pan.
Tilting skillet, or Tilting frypan
A multifunction piece of equipment with convection and microwave capabilities.
Convection/microwave oven
A number 32 ladle or scoop means what?
32 portions per quart (1/8 cup, 1 oz.)
If you want to portion 4 ounces of a food, which ladle or scoop size would you use?
Number 8
If you want 1 cup of a soup to be served, which size ladle should be used?
Number 4
Nonprofit, non-commercial organization that develops minimum sanitation standards for foodservice equipment.
National Sanitation Foundation International (NSF International)
An organization responsible for the compliance of equipment with electrical safety standards
Underwriters Laboratory, Inc. (UL)
This class of fires includes wood, paper, cloth, cardboard, and plastics.
Class A
This class of fires includes grease, liquid shortening, oil, and flammable liquids.
Class B
This class of fires includes electrical equipment, motors, switches, and frayed cords.
Class C