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58 Cards in this Set

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causes of hypokalemia lower then 3.5
thiazides
diarhhea/vomiting
gastric suction
causes of hypokalemia lower then 3.5
cushings syndrome
corticosteroids (-one)
renal disease
causes of hypokalemia lower then 3.5
TPN
DM
alkalosis
signs of hypokalemia
leg/abd cramps
lethergy/weakness
signs of hypokalemia
shallow reps
thready pulse
confusion
signs of hypokalemia
decreased or absent reflexs
hypoactive bowels
signs of hypokalemia
portural hypotension
signs of hypokalemia
peaked P waves
flat T
depressed ST segment
cause of hyperkalemia
renal failure
intestinal damage
cause of hyperkalemia
acidosis
addisons disease
transfusion of stored blood
signs of hyperkalemia
muscle weakness
parathesis
signs of hyperkalemia
hypotension
diarrhea
signs of hyperkalemia
hyperactive bowel signs
signs of hyperkalemia
wide flat p waves widened QRS complex prolonged PR interval
depressed ST segmant
peaked T waves
potassium food sources
avocados cantaluope
fish mushrooms carrots
potatoes pork beef veal
raisens spinach
strawberries tomatoes
causes of hyponatremia
gastro suction
excessive water
potent diruetics
causes of hyponatremia
increased perspiration draning skin leasions
burns
causes of hyponatremia
DKA
SIADH
kidney/heart failure
signs of hyponatremia
rapid thready pulse
weakness
signs of hyponatremia
abd. cramping
poorskin turger
muscle twitching
seizures
hypernatremia causes
low water intake
fever
dehydration
hypernatremia causes
hyperventilation
watery diarhea
TPN
hypernatremia causes
diabetes insipidus
cushings
imapired renal function
hypernatremia causes
excessive sodium bicarbonate
use of costicosteroids (-one)
hypernatremia signs
dry mucous membrane
loss of skin turgor
thirst
hypernatremia signs
flushed skin
elevated temp.
oliguria
hypernatremia signs
fatigue confusion seizures
hypomagnesemia causes
caliac disease
crohns disease
alcholism
hypomagnesemia causes
maalnutrition
acute pancreatitis
DKA
hypomagnesemia causes
eclampsia
chemotherapy
sepsis
signs of hypomagnesemia
twitching paresthesias
hyperactiv reflexes
hypomagnesemia signs
irratability
confusion
shallow reps.
tetany
hypomagnesemia signs
positive Chvosteks/Trousseus
tachycardia
tall T waves depressed ST segment
hypermagnesia causes
overuse of antacids
renal insuffiency
treatment of toxemia
hypermagnesia signs
hypotension bradycardia weak pulse
hypermagnesia signs
sweating /flushing
respiratory depression
loss of deep tendon reflex
prolonged PR wide QRS
magnesium norm 1.6-2.6

food sources
avocado white tuna cauliflower oatmael
green ;eafy vegs.
yougurt milk peanut butter
pea pork beef chicken potatoes raisen
hypocalcemia cause
end stage renal disease
diarrhea
loss from wound drainage
hypocalcemia cause
anticonvulsants (magnesium sulfate)
hypoparathyroid
hypocalcemia cause
caffiene
heparin
laxatives nicotine
hypocalcemia cause
acute pancreatitis
chrohns disease
admins of blood
hypocalcemia signs
tachycardia
hypotension
hypocalcemia signs
parathesias
twitching
cramps tetany
hypocalcemia signs
positive chvosteks
trousseaus
diarhhea
hyperactive
prolonged QT
food sources of calcium
cheese collard greens milk rhubarb sardines spinach
tofu yogurt
hypercalcemia causes
bone tumors
fractures
immobility
hypercalcemia causes
renal failure
thiazide
use of lithium
hypercalcemia causes
adrenal insufficiency
use of glucccortoids
hyperparathyroidism
hypercalcemia signs
increased haert rate and blood presure
bradycardia late sign
hypercalcemia signs
shortened QT widened T waves
hypercalcemia signs
muslce weakness
diminished reflexes
N/V
constipation
ab distention
confusion lethargy coma
hypophosphatemia cuases

normal 2.7-4.5
use of magnesium /hydro based antacids
renal failuree
hypercalcemia
hypophosphatemia cuases
alchohol withdrawel
DKA
respiratory alkalosis
hypophosphatemia signs
confusion seizures wekness
decresed deep tendon reflexes
hypophosphatemia signs
bone pain immunosupression increased bleeding
shallow reps.
causes of hyperphosphatemia
phosphate laxatives
toxic level vita D
hypoparathyroidism
renal insufiency
chemo
signs of hyperphosphatemia
nueromuscular irratability
muscle weakness
hyperactive reflexs
positve chosteks
trousseus sign
phosphate food sources
fish organ meats
nuts pork beeef chiken
whole grains cereals