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59 Cards in this Set

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Total freq of disfluency normal
Nine or fewer disfluencies per 100 words
Total freq of disfluency stutterer
At least 10 disfluencies per 100 words.
types of disfluency normal
whole word, phrase repetitions, interjections, and revisions predominate.
Types of disfluency stutterer
part word repetitions, audible siler pronlongations, and broken words predominate.
Number of unit repetitions/part word repetition normal
No more than two unit repetitions/ part word repetition b-b ball, but not b-b-b ball.
Number of unit repetitions/part word repetition stutterer
three units repetitions audible silent pronlongations, and broken words predominate.
Perception of schwa instead of normal vowel in wored marked by part word repetition normal
schwa not perceived part word repetitions bee-bee-beet, not buh buh buh beet
Perception of schwa instead of normal vowel in wored marked by part word repetition stutterer
schwa will be perceived part word repetitions buh buh buh beet
difficulty starting/sustaining voice/airflow for repetitions normal
little diffculty
difficulty starting/sustaining voice/airflow for repetitions stutterer
break in repetition, interuppted airflow/voice
Fluency Shaping Techniques
Easy/gentle onset, airflow therapy, continuous phonation, slow speaking, phrasing/pausing, adjusting complex of utter, progressive relax, adjusting prosody, generalization.
Cont. Phonation Therapy
Similar to that heard in fluent people. develop feeling of contronl discourage passive attitude toward stutter encourage assertive attitude.
Develop feeling fluency
Cont. phonation-most important variable in person's success w/ therapy, visceral, not measurable feeling confident of ability to perform speech.
staccato speech
disconnected abrupt disjointed
legato speech
cont. connected overlapping smooth melodic.
motor learning
closed loop motor control, open loop motor control
Closed loop
uses sense feedback, cont. adjust based on percep
Closed loop advantages
promotes accuracy, allows prod. of unpracticed move, promotes multi systems coord.
Closed loop disadvantages
slow increased execution time, incresed cog. demands
open loop
info precessing occurs prior to move, move are pre-programmed stored in long term mem. not influenced by peripheral feedback
open loop advantages
rapid move, decreased cog. demands
open loop disadvantages
no error reg. ineefect when percision required.
Naturalness of speech
reg. of airflow, phonation, variable artic. rate, inton, intelligibility, changing one changes all others.
DAF
delayed auditory feedback-speech fed back to spaker via earphone lay @ delay of 25ms - 300 ms. Used as facilitator not replacement for therapy.
Incidence
all people ever reported 5%
Prevelance
Amount of people who currently stutter 1%
Sex ratio
4:1
Syllables
Best way to indicated rate because syllables are constant. used to get fluency ratio.
Adam's criteria
3 out of 5 must be present to be an incipent stutterer.
Mary Ann Peins wanted
decrease: clinician prep time, amount of patient/clinician contact, time, money, increase: amount of home practice, insure rapid improve, facilitate and maintain improve.
Double tape recorder therapy
12 taped lessons over 6 mos., received taped lessons every 2 wks, listen tape daily responds on a new tape.
Double tape induced
Self monitoring, inc. auditory awaremes of rate, inc. proprioceptive awareness to voice and artic.
Total disfluency index
% stuttered syllables=# of stuttered syllables/total # syllabes spoken baseline data
Overall speech rate
total syllables spoken/talk time
Disflueny type index
% ind disfluency type=total # disfluencies of ind type/total # syllables.
engrams
motor programs stored in long term mem. can be errored/correct corrected by retraining the motor prog.
Visual stigmata
eye blinks, lip pursing, facial grimace, flaring of nares, head move, mtoric starters
Auditory stigmata
sound repetitions, syllable repetitions, word repetitions, pharse repetitions, prolongations, interjecttions, circumlocuations, hesitations.
Stutteres slower
reaction time for auditory stimuli and visual
No dominant hemisphere
each will funct. independently
Neurogenic stuttering
brain tumors, head trauma, stroke
Artic disorder in stutterer
2 1/2 times greater.
Distinguish between fluent and non fluent
location and freq of pauses, presence of extra souds, intonation and strees, overall speech rate, rhythmical pattern of speech.
Fixed ratio
fixed mumber of responses triggering freq. rewards.
Central auditory processing
stutteres perform more poorly on takses requireing detecting onset/offset of tones in presence of masking noise.
Conditioning
occurs when a behavior is immediately followed by a reward
Key factors to learning
freq., timing, and strength of rewards and punish.
Anticipation
ability of stutteres to predict w/ great accuracy which words they will stutter on
Adaption
the phenomena where stuttering occurs less and less w/ repeated readings of a passage
Pro SMT client
does not require speaking in an abnormal pattern
Con SMT client
needs to confront and perform fear producing tasks
Pro SMT clinician
therapy tens to be more spontaneuos and enjoyable
Con SMT clinician
therapy nonstructured more diff. decisions need to be made. Less data kept for measuring progress for IEP
Con SMT training prog
more difficult to teach clinicians
Pro FST client
less need to confront and perform fear producing tasks
Con FST client
may require speaking in abnormal pattern for a time
Pro FST clinician
more structured programs available less planning needed. more data kept for measuring progress for IEP
Con FST clinician
therapy can be boring, charting more data
Pro FST training program
easier to teach clinicians