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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
After an MI, what is the order (chronologically) of elevated enzymes seen?
Troponin, CKMB, AST, LDH
Sx seen with pericarditis
Pericardial pain, friction rub, diffuse ST elevation in all leads, pulsus paradoxus, distant heart sounds, pain relieved when leaning forward
Most common primary cardiac tumors in adults
Cardiac myxoma (mostly in LA)
Most common cardiac tumor in children
Rhabdomyoma (seen with tuberous sclerosis)
Tumors/signs associated with tuberous sclerosis
Rhabdomyoma, astrocytoma, facial angiofibroma, seizures, mental retardation
Risk factors associated with papillary necrosis
Diabetes, analgesic abuse, urinary tract obstruction, sickle cell disease
Where does prostaglandin act in the kidney arterioles
Dilates afferent arteriole to increase GFR
Equation for GFR
(U*V)/P = GFR

GFR(inulin or creatinine)
Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with renal cell carcinoma
Ectopic EPO, ACTH, PTHrP, prolactin
Causes of Transitional cell carcinoma
Phenacetin, Smoking, Aniline dyes (naphthalene), Cyclophosphamide
Name the location of the baroreceptors and which CN innervates them
- Carotid sinus (Glossopharyngeal - IX)
- Aortic Arch (Vagus - X)
Identify Nerves for:
1. Gag Reflex
2. Jaw Reflex
3. Corneal Reflex
1. Gag = IX; X
2. Jaw = V(mesenteric); V(motor)
3. Corneal = V; VII
Epidural Hemorrhage shows what shape on CT scan
Biconcave (subdural is crescent shaped)
Thrombotic occlusion of IVC or hepative vein w/centrilobular congestion and necrosis leading to congestive liver disease
Budd-Chiari Syndrome
Mildyly decrease UDP-glucuronyl transferase; elevated unconjugated bilirubin
Gilbert's syndrome
Elevated conjugated bilirubin (two types)
1. Dubin-Johnson (black liver)
2. Rotor syndrome (milder)
Self-limited hypothyroidism often following a flu-like illness; tender thyroid
Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain's)
Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in children
Neuroblastoma (but can occur anywhere along the sympathetic chain) - less likely than pheo to develop hypertension
Medial Medullary Syndrome
Occlusion of anterior spinal artery at the medulla:
1. Contralateral spastic hemiparesis (Corticospinal tract)
2. Contralateral loss of proprioception, touch, vibration in body (medial lemniscus)
3. Ipsilateral paralysis of the tongue (hypoglossal n/nuc)
Lateral Medullary Syndrome
Occlusion of Post inf cerebellar a.:
1. Spinothalamic tract
2. Loss of vestibular nuclei (nystagmus, diplopia, vertigo, N&V)
3. Lesion of CN IX and X
4. Lesion of descending symp (ipsi horner's)
5. Lesion of CN V (ipsi pain and temp loss in face)
Trousseau's Syndrome
Migratory thrombophlebitis associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma
Main component of lung surfactant
Cardiologic defects associated with 22q11 syndrome
Truncus arteriosus and tetralogy of Fallot
Cardiac defects associated with congenital rubella
Septal defects, PDA
Cardiac defect associated with diabetic mother
Transposition of the great vessles
Ovarian metastasis of a mucinous adenocarcinoma usually from the stomach presents bilaterally
Krukenberg Tumor (signet ring cells)
Causes of restrictive cardiomyopathy
Amyloidosis (seen in RA), sarcoidosis, postradiation fibrosis, endocardial fibroelastosi, endomyocardial fibrosis (Loeffler's)
Neurofibromatosis type I
Cafe-au-lait spots, neural tumors, Lisch nodules (pigmented iris hamartomas), scoliosis, pheochromocytoma, increased tumor susceptibility
Associated with polyhydramnios associations
Duodenal and esophageal atresia
Antimitochondrial Antibody
Primary biliary cirrhosis
DNA Gyrase action
Introduce negative supercoils to stabilize an underwound DNA
What 3 anti-cholinergic drugs penetrate the BBB
Physostigmine, pilocarpine, and parathion
What is the only gram (+) bacterium that has endotoxin
Listeria monocytogenes
Sertonin is made from which amino acid
NE and Dopamine is made from which amino acid
Charcot Marie Tooth Disease
Progressive hereditary disorder that causes nerve damage (neuropathy) by damaging the myelin sheath. Most often affects the legs, arms, hands and feet leading to muscle weakness and loss of muscle bulk
Treatment of choice for lyme (borrelia burgdorferi) disease
Sertoli cells produce _____
Inhibin, Mullerian inhibiting factor, androgen binding protein
Meniere's disease
Disorder of inner ear that affects hearing, balance, dizziness, and tinnitus. Caused by increase in volume/pressure of the endolymph in the inner ear.
Tx = Decrease salt intake
Nystagmus is defined by the direction of the rapid or slow reflex movement?
By the rapid movement
Describe the caloric stimulation test for nystagmus
Head elevated at 30 degrees. Add cool water into external auditory canal, nystagmus to opposite side. Hot water = nystagmus to same side. COWS
Function of Tensor tympani and stapedius muscle
Contraction reduces the conduction of vibrations through the ossicles to the inner ear (decrease sound)
Organ of Corti is located in which specific compartment of the cochlear spiral?
Organ of corti lies on the basilar membrane and is bathed by endolymph of the scala media
"Locked-in" syndrome has lesion at what site in the brainstem?
Tay Sachs (enzyme deficiency; accumulation material)
Hexosaminidase A; Ganglioside GM2
Gaucher's disease
Beta-glucocerebrosidase; glucocerebroside
Neimann-Pick disease
Sphingomyelinase; sphingomyelin
Krabbe's disease
Beta-Galactosidase; galactocerebroside
Enzyme deficiency in phenylketonuria
phenylalanine hydroxylase
Guillain Barre mechanism
Autoimmune reaction mediated b y Ab that target components of Schwann cells in the PNS
Niacin (B3) is derived from which amino acid using which vitamin
Derived from tryptophan using vit. B6
Von Hippel Lindau
1. Hemangioblastoma
2. Renal, pancreatic, hepatic cysts
3. Renal cell carcinoma
4. Pheochromocytoma
5. Autosomal dominant
Associations with Sturge-weber syndrome
Capillary-venous malformation w/ipsi port-wine stain in trigeminal; Neuroblastoma; glaucoma; affected brain atrophy
Arnold-Chiari Malformation (cerebellar tonsils that herniate through foramen magnum) assocations
1. Kinking of medulla
2. Aqueductal stenosis/atresia
3. Midbrain malformation
4. Hydrocephalus
5. Spina bifida
6. Meningomyelocele