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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
muscular strength
the ability to generate force during a maximal effort
muscular endurance
ability to resist fatigue while holding or repeating a muscular contraction
muscle fiber
a single muscle cell
myofibrils
protein structures that make up muscle fibers
hypertrophy
an increase in the size of a muscle fiber, usually stimulated by muscular overload
atrophy
a decrease in the size of muscle cells
hyperplasia
an increase in the number of muscle cells
slow-twitch fibers
fatigue resistant recruited for endurance activities. can't give out as much power
fast-twitch fibers
muscle fiber that contract rapidly and forcefully but fatigue quickly. used for quick strength and power
power
the ablity to exert force rapidly
motor unit
amotor nerve connected to one or more muscle fibers
What are benefits of muscular strength and endurance?
Improved performance of physical activities
injury prevention
imporved body composition
enhanced self-image and quality of life
improved muscle and bone health with aging
prevention and management of chronic disease
repetition maximum
the maximum amount of resistance that can be moved a specified number of times
isometric exercise
exercise involving a muscles contration without a changed in the length of the muscle
isotonic exercise
exercise involving a muscle contraction with a change in the length of the muscle
concentric muscle contraction
an isotonic contraction in which the muscle gets shorter
eccentric muscle contraction
an isotonic contraction in whihc the muscle lengthens as it contracts
eccentric (pliometric) loading
loadin ghte muscle while it is lengthening
plyometrics
rapid stretching of a muscle group that is undergoing eccentric stress followed by a rapid concentric contraction
speed loading
moving a load as rapidly as possible
isokinetic
the applicaiton of force at a constant speed gainst an equal force
FITT
Frequency
Intensity
Time
Type
flexiblity
the ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion
static flexibility
abilty to assume and maintain an extended position at one end or point in a joint's range of motion
dynamic flexibility
the ability to move a joint through its range of motion with little resistance
collagen
white fibers that provide structure and support in connective tissue
elastin
yellow fibers that make connective tissue flexible
titin
a filament in a muscle that helps align proteins that cause muscle contraction
stretch receptors
sense organs in sketal muscles that initiate a nerve signal to the spinal cord in response to a stretch; a contraction follows
Golgi tendon organs
proprioceptive organ lying withint tendons that recognizes and reacts to changes in mucl tension
PNF (acronym)
proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
What does PNF do?
a technique for stretching and strengthening muscles where the muscle is contacted before it is stretched
Benefits to flexibility and stretching exercises
joint health
prevention of low back pain and injuries
relief of aches and pains
relief of muscle cramps
improved body position and strength for sports
maintenance of good posture and balance
relaxation
static stretching
a technique in which a muscle is slowly and gently stretched and then held in the stretche dposition
ballistic stretchingq
a technique in which musclesa re stretched by the forece generated as a body part is repeated bounces, swung, or jerked
dynamic stretching
muscles are stretched by moving joints slowly and fluidly throught their range of motion in a controlled manner
passive stretching
a technique in whihc muscle are stretched by force applied by an outside source
active stretching
a technique in whihc muscles are stretched by the contraction of the oppoising muscle
intevertebral disk
an elastic disk located betwen the adjoining vertebrae consisted of a gel and water filled nucleaus surrounded by fibrous rings (shock absorber)
How many Americans experience back pain at some time in their lives?
85 percent
What is the function of the spine?
-provides structural support for the body
-surrounds and protects the spinal cord
-supports much of the body's weight and transmits it to the lower body
-serves as an attachment site for a large number of muscle, tendons and ligaments
-it allows movement of the neck and back in all directions
what are the four curves of the spine?
-cervical
-thoracic
-lumbar
-sacral
What is the essential principle of core training?
to train movement, not muscles
What are other lifestyle recommendations for preventing back pain?
-lose weight/stop smoking/reduce emotional stress
-avoid sitting, standing, or working in the same position for too long
-use a supportive seat and a medium-firm matress
-warm up before engaging in vigorous activity
-progress gradually when attempting to improve strength and flexibility
How do you take care of back pain?
-apply cold and then heat