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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Elements
Can't be broken down by an ordinary means
Most important elements to living things
C,H, O, N, CA, P, Na
Compounds
2 or more elements together in fixed ratios
when combined the properties can change
Na-explosive
Cl-gas is poison
Atom
smallest unit of an element
protons
positive charge found in the nucleus
neutrons
no charge found in nucleus
electrons
negative charge circles the center in orbitals
Weight
proton= 1 amu
neutron= 1 amu
electron= 0 amu
atomic number
the number of protons
2He helium has two protons
neutral atom
the number of protons equals the number of electrons
Atomic Mass
number of protons plus the number of neutrons
Isotopes
atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons
and can be radioactive
(decay and emit radioactivity)
deuterium
plus one neutron of hydrogen
tritium
plus two neutrons of hydrogen and radioactive
Carbon 14
radio active with 8 neutrons and used for carbon dating of fossils bc half-life is 5600 years
measure the ratio to determine the age of the fossil
radioactivity of an atom
determined by the position of the electrons
the farther away from the nucleus the more energy present
movement of electrons
shell 1- shell 2
must add energy
shell2-shell1
must release energy
Orbitals
shell 1= 1 orbital (2 electrons)
shell 2=4 orbitals
shell 3=4 orbitals
Valence electrons
the outter shell electrons that will bond
covalent bonds
sharing of electrons
nonpolar covalent bonds
equal sharing (H2)
polar covalent bonds
unequal sharing (HCl)
shared electrons will orbit chlorine more often and create a negativ charge
ionic bonds
form between ions (no sharing) NaCl sodium gives the electron away, then sodium=positive ion and chlorine=ngativ ion
hydrogen bond (elctrostatic bond)
H2O:polar molecule a 4 cornered molecule and a tetrahedron
Properties of water
cohesion, adhesion, high "specific" heat, high heat of vaporization, solid is less dense, solvent, ionization of water
Cohesion
water sticks to other water molecules, high surface tension (skipping rocks)
Adhesion
H2O adheres to other polar molecules= hydrophilic
high "specific" heat
amt of heat that is absorbed or released to change the temp of 1 gram of water equals 1cal/1gr/1C
good stabilizer of temp
high heat of vaporation
amt of heat applied to change 1 gr of H2O to vapor = 586 cal
Solid is less dense
4C is the temp where water is the most dense, widely spaced molecules = ice
solvent
H2O dissolves polar molecules and ionic molecules bc it attracks a charge and not nonpolar molecules bc there is no charge
Ionization of water
"Dissociation" can produce a proton and a hydronium and hydroxide ion with H3O + OH
Acid
proton donor
H + Cl = HCl
vinegar
lemon juice
Base
proton acceptor
Na + OH = NaOH
clorox
pH of life
6-8
Acid rain
1.5-4.2
sulfuric acid and nitric acid
Buffers
used to regulate pH
blood
Organic molecules
contain C and H
Hydrocarbons
alkanes
alkenes
alkines
alkanes
contain only H and C with single bonds
saturated with hydrogen
alkenes
unsaturated hydrocarbon
1 or more doouble bonds
alkines
unsaturated with 1 or more triple bonds
ethine=acetylene (all fuels)
Functional groups
groups of atoms that are attached to a carbon skeleton that define organic molecules
hydroxyl
OH
polar
found in alcohols and sugars
-anol
aldehyde
either first or last
found in alehyde molecules and sugars
-C=O
H
-anal
ketone
always internal
C=O
-one
acetone=propanone
carboxyl
found in amino acids
C-OH
O
-oic
Phosphate
-phospholipids and nucleotides
O
P-O
O
Amino Acid
H-N
H
Macromolecules
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides
Monomer
building block for all macromolecules
Carbohydrates
hydroxls, carbon chain, and aldehyde/ketone
glucose=dextrose
glyceraldehyde/aldo sugar/triose
smallest saccharide with 3 carbons
alpha glucose
on carbons 1 and 4 OH points in the same direction
digestible and important
beta glucose
OH points in a different direction
cellulose
Dissaccharide
alpha glucose + alpha glucose= maltose
H2O is removed
Sucrose
alpha glucose + fructose
Starch
made by plants
storage for stockpile sugar
amylose
unbranched form of starch
amylopatin
branched form of starch
glycogen
highly branched
muscle/liver
storage of energy
cellulose
made by plants
animals can't digest unless protozoa is present in digestive tract
(beta glucose)
Amino Sugars
sugars that have an amino group
cartilage-glucosamine
chitin- exoskeleton of arthopods
Lipids
have less oxygen than carbos
monomer, triglycerides, phospholipids, steriods, carteniods, wax
insoluble in water
soluble in non polar molecules
Fatty acid
caboxyl plus a long hydrocarbon saturated chain
lots of energy
Peptide bond
O H
C-N
Proteins
four levels
held together with hydrogen bonds
denaturization
if a protein looses confirmation
-heat
-pH
-salt concentration
-perms
Functions of proteins
structural, storage, defense, some hormones, muscle, transport hemoglobin, enzymes
Polynucleotides
DNA and RNA
5 carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphates
ATP, ADP, AMP
Dinucleotides
NAD, NADH, FAD
Nitrogen bases
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
Exergonic rxn "oxidation"
a rxn that will occur spontaneously and release energy
give up H & release electrons
Endergonic rxn "reuctions"
add H and electrons to a molecule
photosynthesis
endergonic that requires energy and only plants can perform this function
Oxidized coenzymes
NAD and FAD
Reduced coenzymes
NADH and FADH
Coenzymes
act as electron acceptors and donators
vitamin portion
used in coupled rxns
are not proteins
aldehyde=ethanol
Coupled rxns
ATP used to form ADP
ammonium