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92 Cards in this Set

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What army manual covers first aid for soldiers?
FM 4-25.11
What is first aid?
It's the first care given to injured soldiers before medical personnel ar available.
What are the four life-saving steps of first aid?
M.A.R.C.H.
What are the three types of bleeding and how are they recognized?
Arterial - Blood is bright red and spurts with the heartbeat
Venous - Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream
Capillary - Blood oozes from the wound.
How do you stop bleeding?
Situational....
Whose first aid dressing should be used on the casualty?
Use the casualty's bandage
When should a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding?
Situational...
What are the four types of burns?
Electrical, thermal, chemical and laser.
What is the single most common cause of airway blockage?
The tongue.
Where is the tourniquet applied?
Around a limb, between the injury and the heart, two to four inchest above the wound. And, never place a trouniquet directly to a joint.
How tight should a tourniquet be?
Until bright red bleeding has stopped.
What must be done to indicate a casualty has a tourniquet?
Mark the casualty's forehead with a "T" and note the time of aplication.
When should you loosen or remove a tourniquet?
Situational...
Define manual pressure?
Firm pressure on the dressing for five to ten minutes
What should be applied if bleeding continues after applying a field dressing?
Apply a pressure dressing after manual pressure, and elevation of the injury.
What are two types of artificial respiration?
The mouth-to-mouth method, and he back pressure-arm lift method.
Should a casualty be given water to drink?
Situational...
What are signs of shock?
Cool, pale and damp skin, confusion, nausea or vomiting, restlessness or nervousness, loss of blood, thirst, fast breathing, fainting spells, excessive perspiration, blothced or bluish skin, especially around the mouth or lips.
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
When there is a head injury, abdominal wound or unsplintered fractured leg(s)
What is the treatment for shock?
Move to cover if possible. Lay the casualty on their back, elevate the legs, loosen clothing at the neck, waist, ankles and feet, prevent chilling or overheating, keep the casualty calm.
What is the measure for checking the tightness of bandages?
Two fingers should slip under the bandage
What items should never be used as a tourniquet?
Wire or string.
What procedure is used to restore heart?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
When it becomes necessary to give CPR what is the ration of pumps to breaths for a one-man rescue and a two-man rescue?
One man -15 pumps/2 breaths
Two man -5 pumps/1 breath
When may resuscitation measures be stopped?
When a doctor tells you to stop.
When you are relieved by others.
When you can't physically continue.
When the casualty starts breathing on her own.
What is the correct method of arificial respiration used during an NBC attack, and why?
The back pressure-arm lift method because during an NBC attack both of you will be masked
When is the casualty's clothing not removed in order to exose a wound?
When the clothing is stuck to the wound, or in an NBC enviroment.
What is unique about type "O" blood?
It can be used by anybody.
Why should wounds be treated as soon as possible?
To control the bleeding, and to preotect the wound from contamination by germs.
What is a heat injury?
General dehydration of the body brought on by loss of water and salt through activity in the heat.
What are the three categories of heat injries?
Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.
Describe the signs ofheat cramps?
Muscle cramps of the legs, arms or abdomen, excessive sweating.
Describe the treatment for heat cramps?
Move the casualty into shade, loosen clothing and give cool water.
Name the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion?
Pale, moist and cool, clamy skin, headache, muscle cramps, excessive sweating, weakness, mausea, dizziness, cramps, urge to defecate, chills, rapid breathing, confusion, tingling of the hand and/or feet.
How should heat exhaustion be treated?
Move the casualty to a cool, shaded area, loosen any tight fitting clothing, have him or her drink a canteen of cool water, elevate the legs and monitor.
Describe the signs and symptoms of heat stroke?
The person stops sweating, his or her skin is dry and hot, the pulse is fast, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and mental confusion, weakness, seizures.
How should heat stroke be treated?
Immerse the casualty in the coldest water available or remove the clothing and wet entire body while fanning, transport to the nearest medical facility.
What are the two most common types of fractures?
Open (compound) , and closed (simple)
What is an open fracture?
A broken bone that breaks through the skin.
What should be done first for an open fracture?
Stop the bleeding.
What are the signs and symptoms of fractures?
Pain at the site, discoloration and deformity.
Why is a fracture immobilized?
To prevent the sharp edges of the bone from moving and cutting tissue, muscle, blood vessels and nerves. Doing this reduces pain and helps prevent and control shock.
What is shock and why is it dangerous?
Shock is inadequate blood flow to the vital organs and tissues. If shock is uncoreect it may result in death even though the injury or conditions causing shcok apear to be less than fatal.
what is the basic proven principles in splinting fractures?
Splint them where they lie.
What does the key word "COLD" mean in cold weather protection?
COLD stands for keeping it Clean, avoiding Overheating, wearing Loose clothing in layers, and keeping it Dry.
Name five types of cold and wet weather injuries
Frostbite, hypothermia, immersion foot/trench foot, chilblain, snow blindness
Describe the signs and symptoms of frostbite
Loss of sensation or numb feeling in any part of the body, sudden whitening of the skin in the affected area, followed by a mementary tingling feeling, redness of skin in light skinned soldiers, grayish coloring in dark skinned soldiers, blisters, swollen and/or tender areas, loss of previous feeling of pain in the affected area, pale, yellowish, waxy looking skin, frozen area that feels solid or wooden to the touch
What is the treatment for frostbite?
Warm the area at the first sign of frostbite with the casualty's or a buddy's hands, undearm or abdomen. Face, ears, or nose: Cover the area with the casualty's or buddy's hands. Hand: Place them inside his or her clothing against the body and close the clothing. Feet: Place the casualty's bare feet under the clothing and against the body of another soldier. Lossen or remove tight clothing and any jewelry. Cover the casualty with a blanket or other dry material.
What precautions should be followed with frostbite?
Dont soak the frostbitten part. Dont rub it with snow. Dont expose it to any extreme heat source. Dont rub or move the frostbitten part in any way to increase circulation. Don't allow the casualty to smoke or drink alcohol. Do not treat seriously frostbitten parts if the casualty must walk or travel to receive further treatment.
What is hypothermia?
The body loses heat faster then it can produce.
What are th two types of hypothermia?
Mild and Severe
Describe the symptoms of hypothermia
Casualty is cold. Shivering stops, but the body temperature is low. Consciousness may be altered. Movement is uncoordinated. Shock and coma may set in as a result of lower body temps.
What is the treatment for hypothermia?
Immediately rewarm the body evenly with a heat source. Keep the casualty dry, and protect from the elements. Warm liquids may gradually be given to the casualty providing he is conscious. Be prepared to start basic life support measures for the casualty. Seek medical help immediately. Hypothermia is a medical emergency and must be treated as soon as possible.
What are the signs and symptoms of immersion foot?
Affected parts are cold, numb, and painless. Then, the parts may become hot, with bruning and shooting pains. In the advanced stage skin is pale with a bluish tint, pulse decreases. Blistering, swelling, heat, hemorrhages, and gangrene may follow.
How is trench foot/immersion foot acquired?
It results from fairly long exposure of the feet to wet and cold (50-32 degrees). Inactive feet in damp or wet socks and boots or tightly laced boots which impair circulation can also cause it.
How is trench foot/immersion foot treated?
Rewarm the injury gradually by exposing it to warm air. Dont massage it. Dont moisten the skin. Dont apply heat or ice. Protect the affected area from further trauma. Keep the injury dry. Avoid walking. Seek medical treatment.
What are the symptoms of chillblain?
The affected area are red, swollen, hot, tender, and itchy. Continued exposure will lead to blisters or bleeding skin lesions.
Describe the treatment for chilblain?
The affected area usually responds to locally applied rewarming with body heat. Dont rub or massage the area.
What is snow blindness?
The effect that glare from an ice field or snowfield has on the eyes.
Will snow blindness occur only when the sun is shining?
No. It can happen in cloudy weather also.
Will snow blindness occur only when the sun is shining?
No. It can happen in cloudy weather, also.
What are the symptoms of snow blindness?
A sensation of grit or sand in the eyes, pain in and over the eyes which feels worse when the eyeball moes. Other signs nclude watering, redness, headache, and pain on exposure to light.
How should snow blindess be treated?
Blindfolding or covering the eyes with dark coth which stops eye movement. Rest, protect from further exposure to light. Seek medical care.
Is snow blindness permanent?
No. The condition usually heals in a few days without permanent damage.
What is the most common condition which requires first aid assistance?
The open wound
How would you treat a sucking chest wound?
Cover the area with plastic to stop the flow of air. Bandage the wound and lay the casualty on the wound if possible, or have the person sit up.
How much water should be given to a person with an abdominal wound?
None
What is the best one man carry that can be used for transporting a casualty long distance?
Pistol Belt Carry
Describe the three degrees of burns.
1st degree burn - reddening skin
2nd degree burn - blistering
3rd degree burn - charred flesh
What is the most important thing to do in ase of a serious burn?
Keep the burn clean and apply a dry sterile dressing.
If you found a casualty with a hole in his or her chest what would be the first thing to do?
Check th back for an exit wound
What is an indiation of a sucking chest wound?
Frothy fluid bursting with each breath
Would you elevate a patient's legs if he had a head injury?
No
Should large amounts of water be given to a burn victim?
No. One quart per hour is sufficient
What is self aid
Emergency treatment applied by oneself
what is the first aid for bee stings?
Remove the stinger with knife or fingernail. Wash the area. Apply ice or freeze pack if available. If symptoms of allergic reactions appear, be prepared to perform basic life saving measures and seek immediate medical aid.
When are snakes most active.
During the period from twilight to daylight.
Can all snakes swim.
Yes.
Should any medication or cream be put on a burn?
no
Should unbroken blisters be opened?
They should be protected and allowed to drain naturally unless it is in an area where friction is going to cause it to break open
How should blisters be treated?
Wash the area with soap and water. Sterilize a needle. Open blister by sticking it at the lower edge. Drain the blister by pressing it and removing the fluid with a clean cloth or gauze. Aplly a bandage.
How are open blisters treated?
Cleanse the area with soap and water. Apply a bandage.
What are the symptoms of skin reactions to poison ivy.
Redness, swelling, itching, rashes or blisters, burning sensation and general headaches and fever. Secondary infection may occur.
how is poison ivy treated?
Expose affected area and remove clothing and jewelry. Clean the area with soap and water. Apply rubbing alcohol to the affected area. Apply calamine lotion. Avoid dressing the affected area. Seek medical help, especially if the rash is severe or if it is on the face or genitals.
What is an STD
Secually transmitted disease.
What does AIDS stand for?
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
What causes AIDS?
The HIV virus
Is there presently a cure for AIDS?
No
Give two distinguishing characteristics of a non-poisonous snake.
Oval-shaped head and round pupils.
How can you identify a poisonous snake?
They have small deep pits between the nostrils and eyes on each side of the head
name the four poisonous snakes found in the US
Rattlesnakes, copperheads, water moccasins, and coral snakes.
Give two examples of pit vipers.
Rattlesnakes, bushmasters, copperheads, fer-de-lance, malayan pit vipers and water moccasins.